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Cheboygan County History

Source: "The Traverse Region, Historical and Descriptive, with Illustrations of Scenery and Portraits and Biographical Sketches of Some of Its Prominent Men and Pioneers", Chicago: HR Page & Co., 1884.

Cheboygan County is bounded on the north by Lake Huron and the Straits of Mackinaw; on the east by Lake Huron and Presque Isle County; on the south by Otsego and Montmorency Counties, and on the west by Emmet and Charlevoix Counties. It has an area of 792 square miles, and had a population in 1880, of 6,524, which, however, is nearly doubled in 1884.

The surface of the country is greatly diversified, level plains being found in some localities and rolling lands in others, the hills on the borders of the lake sometimes rising to a height of two hundred feet. It is watered by the Rainy, Black, Pigeon, Cheboygan, and Maple Rivers, also by Cheboygan, Black, Mullet, Burt, and Douglass Lakes. Several of these lakes are navigable, affording excellent opportunities for transportation of wood, bark, etc., and the rafting of logs. The streams furnish good water power in various places.

The soil is composed of red clay in some portions and sand and clay loam in others, generally rich and productive. The timber consists of maple, beech, pine, cedar, hemlock, poplar, elm, and basswood. The principal crops are wheat, corn, oats, hay, potatoes, and vegetables, all of which are successfully grown. Apples, plums, cherries, and berries do well, but peaches and pears are not as successful.

There were 7,741 acres of government, 14,712 acres of state swamp, 9,220 acres of primary school, 5,408 acres of agricultural college, and 67,593 acres of Jackson, Lansing and Saginaw railroad land subject to entry May 1, 1883. Unimproved lands can be had at from $3 to $10 per acre, while improved farms are held at from $15 to $60. A state road runs from Cheboygan to Petoskey, and one from Cheboygan to Rogers City. Other roads of more recent construction traverse the county.

The lumbering interests are very extensive, employing at remunerative wages a great many men, and as fast as the land can be cleared new farms are being developed, which add yearly to the wealth and resources of the county. Fishing is also extensively engaged in.

The Michigan Central Railroad (Mackinac division) passes through Cheboygan, and lake vessels of the largest size enter its two harbors, one of which is in Cheboygan proper, the other at Duncan City, a mile distant. The railroad was built in 1881.

A valuable feature of this county is its large lakes, Burt and Mullett Lakes being specially worthy of mention. They both derive their names from the surveying engineers, Mr. Burt and Mr. Mullett, who surveyed the adjoining lands. These gentlemen made the surveys between 1840 and 1848. They made their home at the Metivier House, on Mackinac Island, which was then kept by Medard Metivier, who purchased the hotel from the old John Jacob Astor Fur Company, who had previously used it as their place of business. Burt Lake is nine miles in length and five miles in width; Mullett Lake is twelve miles long and from five to eight miles wide. They reach in depth from the shore to sixty and ninety feet respectively.

The water is clear as crystal, mostly fed by springs. They are the habitat of various kinds of fish, such as white, pickerel, bass, trout, muskallonge and the kinds generally found in Lakes Huron and Michigan.

Cheboygan River is the outlet of the chain of lakes, Mullett, Burt, and through Crooked River into Crooked Lake, thus extending, with their connecting rivers, over a hundred miles into the interior of Cheboygan and adjoining counties, and traversing vast forests of valuable pine and hard wood timber, and also passes through a rich agricultural district. At a distance of about three-fourths of a mile from its mouth, the flow of the river is arrested by a dam which affords an excellent water-power. Locks prevent obstruction to navigation. About three miles above the dam is the junction of the Cheboygan and Black Rivers. The river banks are high with a sloping ascent. The soil is a mixture of gravel and clay, the latter predominating. Thrifty crops and a vigorous growth of timber give evidence of its fertility. Ascending Black River in a southeast direction, about twelve miles, Black Lake is found, a body of water about ten miles in length and six miles wide. Its eastern shore is within seven miles of Hammond's Bay or Lake Huron.

Near Black Lake is Long Lake, which empties into Black River. Its waters contain a great abundance of fish, affording the finest of angling. Ascending the Cheboygan River about four miles above the junction, the broad expanse of Mullett Lake appears in view. It is a most beautiful sheet of water, about twelve miles in length and five miles wide. Its waters are of the crystal clearness and abound with fish. The shores ascend gradually, and beyond are successive rises of ground. At the head of this lake is the entrance to Indian River, which is three miles in length and forms the connection between Mullett and Burt Lakes. The latter is twelve miles in length and six miles wide. It receives as tributaries Maple and Crooked Rivers. Crooked River proceeds from a lake of the same name which in turn receives a river which takes its rise within about a mile of Little Traverse Bay. Tributary to these lakes are several rivers from the south which drain a water-shed which embraces Otsego, Montmorency, Cheboygan arid a part of Emmet Counties.

County Organization

In the year 1840 all that portion of the state lying north of the line between Towns 36 and 37 north, and east of the line between Ranges 4 and 5 west was laid off as a separate county to be known and designated as the county of Cheboygan, and attached to Mackinac County for judicial purposes. In the same year all that portion of the state in Towns 83, 34, 35 and 36 north, Ranges 1 east, and 1, 2 and 3 west, was laid off as a separate county to be known and designated as the county of Wyandot, and attached to Mackinac County for judicial purposes.

The name Cheboygan is of Indian derivation. Cha-boi-gan, was the Indian name of the river. The original word, Chabwegan, signifies " a place of ore."

In the year 1849 the county of Cheboygan was organized by the legislature into a township, to be known as the township of Sheboygan. In 1850, by an act of legislature, the name of the town of Sheboygan was changed to that of Inverness.

In the year 1853 the counties of Cheboygan and Wyandot were consolidated and organized into one county, to be known and designated as Cheboygan County, and so much of Range 4 west as had been included in Cheboygan County was detached from the same and annexed to Emmet County.

The act under which the county was organized is as follows:

Section 1. The people of the state of Michigan enact. That the counties of Cheboygan and Wyandot shall be organized in one county, by the name of Cheboygan, and the inhabitants thereof entitled to all the rights, privileges, and immunities to which by law the inhabitants of other organized counties are entitled.

Sec 2. There shall be elected in the county of Cheboygan, on the first Tuesday of May next, all the several county officers to which by law the said county is entitled, and said election and the canvass shall, in all respects, be conducted and held in the manner prescribed by law for holding elections and canvasses for county and state officers: Provided, That the canvass shall be held in the village of Duncan, in said county, on the Monday next following said election; and said county officers shall be immediately qualified, and enter upon the duties of their respective offices, and their several terms of office shall expire at the same time they would have expired had they been elected at the last general election: And provided further, That until such county officers are elected and qualified, the proper officers of the county of Mackinac shall perform all the duties appertaining to the officers of said county of Cheboygan, in the same manner as though this act had not passed.

Sec. 3. The board of canvassers of said county, under this act, shall consist of the presiding inspector of each township therein, who shall organize by appointing one of their number chairman, and another secretary of the board, and shall thereupon proceed to discharge all the duties of a board of county canvassers, as in ordinary cases of elections for county and state officers.

Sec 4. The county of Cheboygan shall have concurrent jurisdiction upon Lake Huron, and Thunder and Saginaw Bays, with the other counties contiguous thereto.

Sec 6. The county seat of Cheboygan County is hereby fixed and established at the village of Duncan, on Cheboygan River, in said county.

Sec 7. The counties of Presque Isle, Alpena, Montmorency, Otsego, Crawford, Oscodo, Alcona, Iosco, Ogemaw, and Roscommon are hereby attached to the county of Cheboygan for judicial and municipal purposes.

Sec 8. This act shall take effect immediately.

Approved Jan. 29, 1858.

County Officers

The first officers were elected at a special election held May 1st, 1855, for the term of service commencing January 1, 1855. They consisted of the following named:

County clerk, James S. Douglass; register of deeds, Hiram A. Rood; judge of probate, Bela Chapman; sheriff, Medard Metivier; county treasurer, Bela Chapman; prosecuting attorney, Samuel H. Price; circuit court commissioner, Samuel H. Price; county surveyor, Hiram L. Burr; coroners, Richard Knight, Lorin P. Riggs; fish inspector, Daniel L. Strang.

The following list is of principal officers elected since the organization of the county:

1855—Sheriff, Medard Metivier; clerk, James S. Douglass; register, Hiram A. Rood; treasurer, Bela Chapman; probate judge, Bela Chapman; prosecuting attorney, Samuel H. Price. Total vote, 65.

1856—Sheriff, Moses W. Home; clerk, James S. Douglass; register, Medard Metivier; treasurer, W. M. Belotte; probate judge, Hiram A. Rood; prosecuting attorney, Hiram A. Rood. Total vote, 55.

1858—Sheriff, John S. Riggs; clerk, Daniel L. Strang; register, Daniel L. Strang; treasurer, James F. Watson. Total vote, 70.

1860—Sheriff, Moses W. Home; clerk, Lorenzo Backus; register, William Bartholomew; treasurer, James F. Watson; probate judge, William H. Maultby. Total vote, 94.

1862—Sheriff, Moses W. Home; clerk, Francis Sammons; register, William Bartholomew; treasurer, Lorenzo Backus; prosecuting attorney, Lewis Betz. Total vote, 45.

1864—Sheriff, William E. Maultby; clerk, Francis Sammons; register, Peter McDonnell; treasurer, William Smith; probate judge, William H. Maultby, prosecuting attorney, Moses W. Home; Total vote, 84.

1866—Sheriff, Medard Metivier; clerk and register, A. D. Woolston; treasurer, Charles Brannock. Total vote, 123.

1868—Sheriff, William A. Gray; clerk and register, A. D. Woolston; treasurer, Charles Brannock; probate judge, William H. Maultby; prosecuting attorney, John Barber. Total vote, 210.

1870—Sheriff, Peter A. Paquin; clerk and register, A. D. Woolston; treasurer, William H. Maultby; prosecuting attorney, Daniel R. Joslin. Total vote, 310.

1872—Sheriff, Peter A. Paquin; clerk and register, Medard Metivier; treasurer, William H. Maultby; probate judge, George W. Bell; prosecuting attorney, Watts S. Humphrey. Total vote, 424.

1874—Sheriff, George Paquette; clerk and register, Medard Metivier; treasurer, William H. Maultby; prosecuting attorney, Watts S. Humphrey. Total vote, 324.

1876—Sheriff, George Paquette; clerk and register, Medard Metivier; treasurer, William H. Maultby; probate judge, J. P. Sutton; prosecuting attorney, James J. Brown. Total vote, 707.

1878—Sheriff, William W. Strohn; clerk and register, Medard Metivier; treasurer, Watts S. Humphrey. Total vote, 727.

1880—Sheriff, Charles H. Nuite; clerk and register, Medard Metivier; treasurer, Watts S. Humphrey; probate judge, Edwin Z. Perkins; prosecuting attorney, Frank Shepherd. Total vote, 1,247.

1882—Sheriff, William Harrington; clerk and register, Medard Metivier; treasurer, Edwin Z. Perkins. Total vote, 1,255.

The first meeting of the board of supervisors was held at the office of the county clerk Oct. 8, 1855. Jeremiah Woolston was chosen chairman. The assessment rolls were examined and equalized. The aggregate personal and real estate assessed was $55,326. The board decided to raise the following sums: To cancel the indebtedness of the county, $87.40; to defray current expenses, $133.91; the amount of mill tax required by law, $55.32. Total, $276.63.

In 1876 the total equalized valuation in the county was $1,346,952.

In 1883 the total equalized valuation in the county was $3,578,000.

County Seat

The county seat was first located at the village of Duncan, which place at that time was making a gallant effort to become a metropolis. It was destined to be shorn of its prestige as a shire town, for at a meeting of the board of supervisors held Aug. 9, 1856, a resolution was adopted setting forth that the interests of the county required the removal of tbe county seat. The town of Inverness was designated as the most suitable place to which the county seat should be removed, and the last Saturday in September, 1856, as the time when the question of removal should be submitted to the qualified electors of the county. The results of this election were as follows: In the town of Duncan 17 votes were cast, 13 of which were for removal and 4 against. In the town of Inverness 27 votes were cast, all of which were for removal.

The first session of the circuit court was held in the United States land office at Duncan, July 22, 1856, and was presided over by Judge Samuel F. Douglass. Judge Douglass was succeeded by Judge B. F. H. Witherill.

James S. Douglass, the first circuit court commissioner, was admitted to the bar in a somewhat different manner in those early days from the course now taken. It was necessary in order to carry on the business of the circuit court in 1857 that a commissioner be appointed. So Judge B. F. H. Witherill asked Mr. Douglass, the man regarded as being the most eligible, whether he had studied law, had read Blackstone or Kent? He replied, "No." The judge handed him a copy of Blackstone and a pair of green spectacles, and told him to read it at once. After perusing its pages a few minutes to become posted as best he could upon the points of law of which it was necessary he should be informed, the judge asked him a few questions, and he was admitted to the bar and appointed to the office of circuit court commissioner.

The first jail was in the second story of Bela Chapman's house, where court was held after its removal from Duncan. In 1858 a log jail was built by H. N. Stevenson. Its dimensions were 20x24 feet, and it stood between the present court-house and the jail. The present brick jail was finished in 1880.

The present court-house is the first one built in the county. It was built in 1869 by J. F. Watson. It is a two-story frame building 28x55 feet in size, with court-room above and county offices below.

Officers of the Court in 1884

J. G. Ramsdell, circuit judge; Medard Metivier, clerk; J. P. Sutton, deputy clerk; Frank Shepherd, prosecuting attorney; William A. Clark, Jr., circuit court commissioner.

Officers in attendance are as follows: William Harrington, sheriff; William A. Lynn, under sheriff; George H. Todd, deputy sheriff.

The bar of the county is composed of the following persons: Bell & Adams, James J. Brown, Humphrey & Perkins, H. H. Saunders, Fred Fife, George E. Frost, Frank Shepherd, J. P. Sutton.

The first attorneys who located in the county for the practice of law were Daniel R. Joslin, who came here in April; George W. Bell and Watts S. Humphrey in May, 1869. D. R. Joslin, Esq., had his office in the second story of C. Stevenson's house on Main Street. Messrs. Bell and Humphrey had their first offices in Sammons' block, corner of Main and Third Streets, in the village of Cheboygan.

Supervisors in 1883

Burt, W. N. Cross; Benton; F. M. Sammons; Beaugrand, James Barclay; Duncan, Thomas McKervey; Ellis, Edwin Beebee; Grant, J. Jarvis; Inverness, F. X. Passeno; Mentor, W. H. Watkins; Mimro, George Heilman; Nunda, A. McPhee; Tuscarora, S. Kissinger.

Organization of Towns—First Town Officers—First Entries of Land in the several Townships.

In the year 1853 all that part of the town of Inverness lying east of the middle of the main channel of Mullet Lake and Cheboygan River, and a line extending due north from the mouth of said river to the north bounds of the county was, by the legislature, organized into a separate town to be known as the town of Duncan. These two towns, Inverness and Duncan, continued to be the only organized towns in the county until the year 1860.

The town of Burt was organized by the board of supervisors in the year 1860, and comprised so much of Cheboygan County as was embraced in Townships 33, 34, 35 and 36 north, of Ranges 1 east, and 1, 2 and 3 west. In 1862, Township 36 north, of Range 1 west was detached from Burt, and annexed to the town of Duncan by the board of supervisors, and in the year 1869, Township 36 north, of Range 1 east, was also by the board of supervisors detached from the town of Burt and annexed to the town of Duncan.

The town of Grant was organized in 1870 and embraced all that part of Township 38 north, of Range 1 west, lying east of the Cheboygan River; Township 38 north, of Ranges 1 and 2 east; Sections 1 to 12, inclusive, in Township 37 north, of Range 1 west; Sections 1 to 12, inclusive, in Township 37 north, of Range 1 east, and Sections 4 to 10, inclusive, in Township 37 north, of Range 2 east. Hon. Geo. W. Bell, of whom these facts are obtained, says that there was evidently a mistake in the organization of this town. The action of the board of supervisors, if it did anything, organized the township of Grant from the territory above mentioned, which, of course, would have the effect of leaving the balance of the territory embraced in the old town, and not included in the above desciiption, under the same organization as before, in the town of Duncan. The action of the board would also have the effect to take from the town of Inverness those parts of Sections 6, 7, and 8, in Township 37 north, of Range 1 west, that lie west of Cheboygan River. It would seem, however, that it was not the intention of the board to accomplish any such thing, as the officers of the town of Duncan as it had previously existed, continued to exercise the duties of their several offices in the territory organized into the town of Grant, and the citizens of the other portion of the territory of the old town of Duncan, proceeded to and did, as they supposed, complete the organization of the town of Grant by the election of the proper officers. Neither the towns of Duncan or Grant attempted to exercise any control over that portion of Inverness above mentioned, which by the action of the board was made to constitute a part of the town of Grant. In 1879 the towns of Duncan and Grant were reorganized by act of legislature, and the difficulty heretofore existing was remedied.

The town of Benton was organized by act of legislature in 1871, from fractional Township 38 north, of Range 1 west.

The town of Beaugrand was organized by the board of supervisors in 1871, and embraced Townships 38 and, 39 north, of Ranges 2 and 3 west, which, territory was detached from the town of Inverness.

Tuscarora was organized by act of legislature in 1877, and embraced Townships 34 and 35 north, of Range 3 west, then forming a part of the township of Burt.

The town of Nunda was organized by act of legislature, in 1877, and embraced Townships 33 north, of Ranges 2 and 3 west, then forming a part of the town of Burt. In 1879 this town was vacated and the territory attached to the town of Tuscarora. In 1882 the present town of Nunda was organized, embracing Township 83 north, of Range 2 west.

The town of Munro was organized by the board of supervisors at a meeting held in October, 1878, and embraced Township 87 north, of Range 3 west, then forming a part of the town of Inverness.

The town of Ellis was organized by the board of supervisors in 1881 and embraced Township 33 north, of Ranges 1 east and 2 west, and 34 north of Ranges 1 east and 1 and 2 west.

The town of Mentor was organized in 1882, embracing Townships 34 north, of Range 3 west and 83 north, of Range 3 west.

The town of Hebron was organized by the board of supervisors, December 4, 1883. It was ordered that Township thirty-eight (38) north of Range three (3) west, be detached from the township of Beaugrand, in said county, and that the same be erected into a new township, to be called and known as the township of Hebron, the first annual meeting thereof to be held at the school-house on Section eleven (11), Township thirty-eight (38) north, Range three (8) west, in said township, on the first Monday in April, A. D. 1884, and that Ephraim Francis, Charles Hamman and Charles Shanks, three electors of said township, shall be inspectors of election.

Waverly was organized by the board of supervisors, December 4, 1883. It was ordered that the territory described as Township numbered thirty-five (35) north, of Range one (1) east, be erected and organized into a new township, to be called and known as the township of Waverly, that the first annual meeting therein shall be held at the school-house of District No. 5 of what is now the township of Burt, in said Town 35 north, of Range 1 east, on Monday, the seventh day of April next, and that W. H. Bush, O. S. Merrill and W. M. Gillis, three electors of such township, be inspectors of election.

The town of Mackinaw was organized by the board of supervisors at a meeting held December 4, 1883. It was ordered that: Township numbered thirty-nine (39) north, of Range three (3) west, be erected and organized into a new township, to be called and known as the township of Mackinaw; that the first annual township meeting therein shall be held at what is known as Shepherd's Hall at the village of Mackinaw City, in said township, on the first Monday of April next, and D. B. Notson, G. W. Stimpson and W. H. Willetts, three electors of such township, be inspectors of election. It was also ordered that the next township meeting in the township of Beaugrand, from which such new township is taken, be held at the school-house on Section 25, Town 38 north, of Range 2 west, in said township of Beaugrand.

First Town Officers

The first officers of the several towns were as follows:

Inverness--Supervisor, Jacob Sammons; clerk, H. N. Pease; treasurer, R. McLeod

Duncan—Supervisor, Jeremiah Woolston; clerk, James J. Douglass; treasurer, David J. Wilson.

Burt—Supervisor, Lorin P. Riggs; clerk, John Heaphy, treasurer, Joseph Ossegon.

Grant—Supervisor, John Wiley; clerk, William H. Thomas; treasurer, Joseph Derashia.

Benton—Supervisor, F. M. Sammons; clerk, Robert Micklejohn; treasurer, Andrew Rapin.

Beaugrand—Supervisor, Oliver Beaugrand; clerk, Charles R. Knifhn; treasurer, Ronald F. McDonald.

Tuscarora—Supervisor, E. A. Faunce; clerk, John McDonald, treasurer, --Cox.

Munro—Supervisor, George Hielmann; clerk, Martin Horan; treasurer, Joseph Blank.

Mentor—Supervisor, W. H. Watkins; clerk, A. W. Eck; treasurer, H. D. Spencer.

Ellis—Supervisor, Joseph Passeno, clerk, Joseph Pilley; treasurer, Thomas R. Hungerford.

Nunda—Supervisor, Alex McPhee; clerk, Robert Burrows; treasurer, Thomas Burrows.

First Land Entries

Town 33 North, Range 1 East

Section 9, John T. Mott, Sept. 20, 1865; Section 10, Canal land, May, 15, 1855; Section 11, Canal land, May 15, 1855; Sectiou 12, Henry Glover, Oct. 7, 1856; Section 13, John T. Mott, Sept. 20, 1865; Section 14, Canal land, May 15, 1855; Section 14, John T. Mott, Sept. 20, 1865; Section 14, I. E. Richardson, Sept. 20, 1865; Section 15, Canal land, May 15, 1855; Section 18, Henry Glover, Oct. 7, 1856; Section 19, Henry Glover, Oct. 7, 1856; Section 22, Canal land, May 25, 1855; Section 23, Canal land, May 25, 1855; Section 24, Canal land, May 25, 1855; Section 24, Henry Glover, Nov. 17, 1856; Section 25, Henry Glover, Nov. 17, 1856; Seciion 27, Canal land, May 25, 1855; Section 29, Canal land, May 25, 1855; Section 29, I. E. Richardson, Sept. 20, 1865; Section 30, Henry Glover, Oct. 7, 1856; Section 31, Canal land, May 15, 1855; Section 31, Henry Glover, Oct. 7, 1856; Section 32, Canal land, May 25, 1855; Section 32, I. E. Richardson, Sept. 20, 1865; Section 36, Henry Glover, Oct. 7, 1856.

Town 34 North, Range 1 East

Section 3, Canal land, May 25, 1855; Section 3, I. E. Richardson, Sept. 20, 1865; Section 4, Canal land, May 25, 1855; Section 4, I. E. Richardson, Sept. 20, 1865; Section 18, Canal land, May 15, 1855; Section 20, Henry Glover, Oct. 7, 1856; Section 21, Henry Glover, Oct, 7, 1856; Section 24, Henry Glover, Oct. 7, 1856.

Town 35 North, Range 1 East

Section 7, Canal land, May 25, 1855; Section 18, Canal land, May 25, 1855; Section 19, Alfred A. Dwight, Nov. 18, 1856; Section 30, Ira Davenport, Nov. 17, 1856; Section 30, Henry Glover, Nov. 17, 1856; Section 33, I.E. Richardson, Sept, 20, 1865; Section 33, Dodge & Phelps, Sept. 20, 1865.

Town 36 North, Range 1 East

Section 1, Canal land, May 25, 1855; Section 2, Francis Palms, Nov. 15, 1865; Section 6, L. Defoe, Nov. 1, 1856; Section 10, Francis Palms, Nov. 15, 1865; Section 11, Francis Palms, Nov. 15, 1865; Section 12, Canal land, May 25, 1855; Section 13, Francis Palms, Nov. 15, 1865; Section 23, Francis Palms, Nov. 15, 1865.

Town 37 North, Range 1 East

Section 4, Ira Davenport, Nov. 17, 1856; Section 6, S. H. Price and F. P. Fisher, Dec. 20, 1855; Section 8, Ira Davenport, June 80, 1863; Section 9, H. Glover, Nov. 17, 1856; Section 17, Ira Davenport, June 30, 1863; Section 18, Ira Davenport, June 30, 1863.

Town 38 North, Range 1 East

Section 29, Edward Paquette, Dec. 27, 1865; Section 31, S. H. Price and F. H. Pitkins, Oct. 15, 1865.

Town 38 North, Range 2 East

Section 31, David Preston, Sept, 6, 1866; Section 31, Sanford Baker, Archibald C. Thomson, Robert Patterson, Oct. 13, 1866; Section 32, William Bond, Oct. 7, 1874.

Town 38 North, Range 1 West

Section 19, Charles W. Butler, March 9,1859; Section 22, Abigail Lampey, Sept. 19, 1851; Section 25, Charles Bellant, Dec. 10, 1856; Section 28, Alex. McLeod, Oct. 30, 1849; Section 28, Orrin Smith, Sept. 15, 1847; Section 28, J. W. Duncan, Aug. 22, 1851; Section 29, J. W. Duncan, Aug. 22, 1851; Section 29, James Norton, June 1, 1847; Section 29, Jacob Sammons, Oct. 13, 1846; Section 29, James F. Watson, Nov. 9, 1865; Section 30, William Bellott, June 14, 1851; Section 30, James F. Watson, Nov. 9, 1865; Section 30, William Bellott, Nov. 9, 1858; Section 30, James S. Douglass, Dec 1, 1858; Section 31, William Salenstall, Jan. 19, 1852; Section 31, Francis Evans, Nov. 2, 1846; Section 31, Orrin Smith, Sept. 15, 1847; Section 31, John Gilvey, Nov. 23, 1853; Section 31, Jacob Sammons, Oct. 13, 1846; Section 31, Moses W. Home, Sept. 28, 1847; Section 32, Thomas Evans, June 7, 1847; Section 32, R. Ritchie, July 15, 1851; Section 32, Jacob Sammons, Oct. 13, 1846; Section 32, S. Legault, Aug. 5, 1859; Section 32, P. O'Brien, Nov. 6, 1865; Section 38, George Tasker, June 17, 1851; Section 33, Alex. McLeod, Oct. 30, 1849; Section 33, J. W. Duncan, Oct. 30, 1849; Section 34, J. W. Duncan, Oct. 30, 1849; Section 35, J. and A. D. Woolsan, May 14, 1855; Section 36, Sylvester Sammons, July 13, 1865; Section 36, S. H. Price and F. P. Fisher, Oct. 16, 1855.

Town 37 North, Range 1 West

Section 1, Ira Davenport, Nov. 17, 1856; Section 1, A. A. Dwight, Nov. 17, 1856; Section 2, J. H. Hill and D. D. Oliver, April 6, 1854; Section 2, C. Brannack, Oct. 8, 1863; Section 3, James F. Watson, Oct. 14, 1865; Section 5, Randall McLeod, Oct. 4, 1848; Section 5, Peter McDonald, May 26, 1855; Section 5, Malcom Statker, Dec. 23, 1853; Section 5, Malcom Statker, July 11, 1853; Section 5, Malcom Statker, July 11, 1853; Section 6, Reuben Chapman, Sept. 21, 1850; Section 6, Bela Chapman, Sept. 21, 1850; Section 6, J. W. Duncan, June 25, 1853; Section 6, Charles Brannack, June 14, 1865; Section 7, T. Henry Maultby, Sept. 26, 1865; Section 7, Christian Schall, May 20, 1858; Section 7, J. J. Douglass, Sept. 28, 1857; Section 7, L. R. Brockway, July 10, 1865; Section 7, M. Schields, Sept. 12, 1865; Section 7, John O. Reilly, May 25, 1865; Section 7, Sophia Schwark, Feb. 1, 1865; Section 8, Catharine Hamill, Aug. 1, 1851; Section 8, Charles A. Hamill, Aug. 1, 1851; Section 8, Denis Fisher and I. Belmore, Dec. 16, 1854; Section 8, John Cameron, May 17, 1852; Section 8, C. Legault, Sept. 3, 1851; Section 8, Margaret Armall, June 17, 1851; Section 8, D. Paquin, Nov. 9, 1858; Section 8, M. Dousman, March 20, 1850; Section 9, J. W. Duncan, April 17, 1852; Section 10, J. W. Duncan, Oct. 13, 1854; Section 10, S. Legault, June 9, 1857; Section 10, C. Legault, Nov. 18, 1859; Section 11, J. W. Duncan, Oct. 13, 1854; Section 12, J. W. Duncan, Oct. 18, 1854; Section 12, A. A. Dwight; Nov. 17, 1856; Section 14, J.W. Duncan, Oct. 13, 1854; Section 14, Maglain Enault, March 23, 1864; Section 14, Oliver Beaugrand, Nov. 15, 1865; Section 15, Jeremiah Woolsten, April 26, 1855; Section 16, Bellona M. Gulpin, March 16, 1865; Seciion 17, Alex Hudson, Jan. 8, 1855; Section 17, William Hudson, May 29, 1857; Section 17, Lorenzo D. Wheelock, Aug. 8, 1857; Section 17, George Kitchen, Sept. 14, 1857; Section 17, William Curran, Nov. 20, 1855; Section 17, John Bellmore, Aug. 7, 1852; Section 17, George Kitchen, Nov. 28, 1859; Section 17, William Smith, Nov. 9, 1858; Section 18, George Kitchen, Sept. 21, 1857; Section 18, John Bellmore, Aug. 7, 1852; Section 18, William Smith, March 29, 1858; Section 18, Thomas Beaugrand, Aug. 7, 1852; Section 18, William Smith, Nov. 6, 1865; Section 19, Oliver Paquiette, Aug. 1, 1851; Section 19, Henry David, Aug. 1, 1851; Section 19, John Larew, April 20, 1865; Section 20, E. H. Carter, Aug. 17, 1865; Section 20, Fidelia Strvethten, Oct. 80, 1851; Section 20, Lorenzo Thomas, Oct. 30, 1851; Section 20, E. J. Carter, Nov. 11, 1864; Section 21, N. Young, Oct. 80, 1851; Section 21, Christena Nelson, May 17, 1855; Section 22, Robert Ewers, July 5, 1856; Section 22, John Queenman, Oct. 28, 1856; Section 22, Adolphus Pokah, Aug. 8, 1855; Section 26, Adolphus Pokah, Aug. 8, 1855; Section 26, Frank Fisher, Nov. 3, 1865; Section 26, C. Legault, Nov. 3, 1859; Section 27, Adolphus Pokah, Aug. 8, 1855; Section 27, M. Enault, Sept. 10, 1855; Section 27, C. Legault, Nov. 1, 1859; Section 30, Charles W. Butler, March 9, 1859; Section 36, J. F. Watson, March 1, 1865.

Town 37 North, Range 2 West

Section 1, C. W. Richardson, Sept. 6, 1866; Section 1, J. Defraud, Sept. 24, 1866; Section 1, Patrick Marlow, June 8, 1865; Section 2, Mat. Lalomad, Nov. 11, 1865; Section 2, C. W. Richardson, Sept. 6, 1866; Section 3, C. W. Richardson, Sept. 6, 1866; Section 3, John Burnish, Sept. 5, 1866; Section 5, Charles Brannock, Nov. 21, 1865; Section 10, C. W. Richardson, Sept. 6, 1866; Section 10, Samuel Sherwin, Aug. 29, 1855; Section 10, John F. Burnish, June 30, 1866; Section 11, C. W. Richardson, Sept. 6, 1866; Section 11, J. Burnish and R. Meiklijohn, Oct. 13, 1856; Section 11, John F. Burnish, June 30, 1856; Section 12, S. R. Brockway, July 10, 1865; Section 12, Robert Meadowcroft, Sept. 9, 1855; Section 12, J. S. Douglass, Nov. 26, 1856; Section 13, M. Giva, Oct. 3, 1865; Section 14, Samuel Sherwin, Aug. 29, 1855; Section 14, Martin Foster, Nov. 9, 1865; Section 14, C. W. Richardson, Sept. 6, 1866; Section 14, J. B. Tinker, March 16, 1857; Section 15, Samuel Sherwin, Aug. 29, 1855; Section 15, C. W. Richardson, Sept. 6, 1866; Section 15, Hiram A. Rood, June 28, 1858; Section 15, Hiram A. Rood, Nov. 14, 1857; Section 15, Robert Meadowcroft, Aug. 8, 1855; Section 15, J. Woolston, Aug. 8, 1855; Section 16, Charles Bellant, Nov. 1, 1866; Section 21, Robert Meadowcroft, Aug. 8, 1855; Section 22, J. Woolston, Aug. 8, 1855; Section 24, W. S. Flinn, Oct. 26, 1857; Section 24, H. S. Averill, June 18, 1866; Section 21, S. Nieporth, May 18, 1866; Section 24, James F. Watson, June 21, 1866; Section 24, S. Nieporth, Aug. 10, 1865; Section 24, L. D. Wheelock, April 14, 1866; Section 24, Thomas Richardson, Nov. 17, 1864; Section 25, William Davenport, Jr., Oct. 6, 1866; Section 26, J. Jameson, Aug. 28, 1857; Section 26, M. E. Stall, Nov. 25, 1865; Section 26, C. Stephenson, Sept. 5, 1854; Section 28, G. La Duke, Nov. 11, 1865; Section 33, J. La Duke, June 24, 1866; Section 33, Richard Scott, Nov. 11, 1865; Section 33, R. F. McDonald, Jan. 2, 1866; Section 34, Leonard D. Carlee, Oct. 25, 1866; Section 34, John Heaphy, Sept. 26, 1866; Section 35, Lauren & Riggs, Aug. 10, 1850; Section 36, Lauren & Riggs, Aug. 10, 1850.

Town 36 North, Range 2 West

Section 3, Hiram Rood, June 18, 1857; Section 3, J. W. Duncan, Aug. 2, 1851; Section 7, Robert Meadowcroft, Aug. 16, 1855: Section 7, J. Woolsten, Aug. 29, 1855; Section 8, J. Woolsten, Aug. 29, 1855; Section 18, Baker, Thomson & Co., May 15, 1867; Section 20, Baker, Thomson & Co., May 15, 1867; Section 28, Orrin Towle, July 14, 1856; Section 30, Baker, Thomson & Co., May 15, 1867; Section 31, Price & Fisher, May 26, 1856; Section 33, R. McLeod, July 17, 1850; Section 34, R. McLeod, July 17, 1850; Section 34, Charles Bellant, Nov. 9, 1865; Section 34, Baker, Thomson & Co., June 80, 1867; Section 35, B. C. Milliken, Dec. 17, 1867; Section 36, Baker, Thomson & Co., Jan. 30, 1867.

Town 35 North, Range 2 West

Section 2, A. Lafave, Sept. 22, 1866; Section 2, A. P. Newton, Sept. 7, 1866; Section 3, Charles Bellant, Jan. 25, 1866; Section 4, J. W. Duncan, Oct. 18, 1854; Section 6, Charles Bellant, Nov. 9, 1865; Section 6, C. Davison, Nov, 10, 1866; Section 7, J. W. Duncan, April 17, 1852; Section 7, T. Johnson, Aug. 25, 1851; Section 9, C. Davison, Nov. 15, 1866; Section 10, Charles Bellant, Nov. 9, 1865, Section 10, C. Davison, Nov. 10, 1866; Section 11, Oliver Beaugrand, Aug. 25, 1866; Section 11, C. Davison, Nov. 15, 1866; Section 11, A. La Jave, Aug. 8, 1866; Section 12, Oliver Beaugrand, Aug. 25, 1866; Section 12, Oliver Beaugrand, Aug. 25, 1866; Section 18, Oliver Beaugrand, Aug. 25, 1866; Section 18, C. Davison, May 28, 1867; Section 14, C. Davison, May 28, 1867; Section 15, C. Davison, May 28,1867; Section 17, Baker, Thomson & Patterson, March 19, 1867; Section 18, C. Davison, Nov. 15, 1866; Section 19, Joseph Webwetura, Oct. 23, 1866; Section 19, C. Davison, Nov. 15, 1866; Section 20, C. Davison, Nov. 10, 1866; Section 22, Robert Meadowcroft, June 16, 1856; Section 22, C. W. Richardson, Oct. 30, 1866; Section 22, C. Davison, Nov. 10, 1866; Section 22, C. Davison, Nov. 15, 1866; Section 24, C. W. Richardson, Oct. 30, 1866; Section 24, C. Davison, Oct. 30, 1866; Section 25, C. Davison, Nov. 15, 1866; Section 26, W. A. Butler, Dec. 24, 1866; Section 26, C. W. Richardson, Oct. 30, 1866; Section 26, C. Davison, Nov. 10, 1866; Section 27, Robert Meadowcroft, June 6, 1856; Section 27, Samuel H. Row, Nov. 15, 1866; Section 27, C. Davison, Nov. 15, 1866; Section 28, C. Davison, Nov. 15, 1866; Section 30, R. C., Rennick & D. Whitney, June 19, 1867; Section 35, C. Davison, Nov. 15, 1866; Section 36, C. Davison, Nov. 15, 1866.

Town 36 North, Range 1 West

Section 1, Francis Chevielier, Dec. 27, 1865; Section 1, A. Legault, Nov. 13, 1865; Section 1, Dorcas Fayeft, June 12, 1865; Section 2, A. Legault, Nov. 13, 1865; Section 4, J. W. Duncan, July 30, 1855; Section 4, J. R. & Co., Nov. 20, 1856; Section 5, Medard Metivier, April 20, 1851; Section 8, Charles Reed, Oct. 4, 1856; Section 8, Medard Metivier, April 20, 1851; Section 9, C. J. Wilson, June 17, 1851; Section 12, Francis Chevielier, Dec. 27, 1865; Section 17, S. Brockway, Oct. 11, 1857; Section 17, J. Tuck, June 15, 1861; Section 18, William Hudson, Aug. 4, 1865; Section 20, S. B. Gleason, Nov. 6, 1855; Section 29, J. W. Duncan, Sept. 28, 1853; Section 32, J. W. Duncan, Sept. 28, 1853; Section 33, A. W. Wright, Sept. 15, 1856.

Town 35 North, Range 1 West

Section 4, Samuel Medbury, Sept. 22, 1865; Section 5, Jeremiah W. Duncan, Sept. 28, 1853.

Town 34 North, Range 1 West

Section 10, Henry Glover, Nov. 17, 1856; Section 11, Henry Glover, Nov. 17, 1856; Section 12, Canal land, May 25, 1855; Section 13, Canal land, May 15, 1855; Section 22, Henry Glover, Nov. 17, 1856; Section 23, Ira Davenport, Nov. 17, 1856; Section 24, Ira Davenport, Nov. 17, 1856; Section 25, Ira Davenport, Nov. 17, 1856; Section 28, Ira Davenport, Nov. 17, 1856.

Town 83 North, Range 1 West

Section 9, J. Burton, June 11, 1855.

Town 38 North, Range 2 West

Section 4, John Hetherington, June 12, 1866; Section 23, James F. Watson, Nov. 13, 1865; Section 23, S. Legault, Nov. 2, 1859; Section 24, C. W. Butler, March 9, 1859; Section 24, James F. Watson, Nov. 18, 1865; Section 25, Thomas E. Doughty, June 7, 1859; Section 25, Samuel Dodd, Jan. 19, 1865; Section 25, Charles Bellant, Nov. 17, 1864; Section 25, C. H. Brannock, June 18, 1865; Section 25, F. N. Bellau, Oct. 4, 1859; Section 25, Samuel Dodd, Aug. 30, 1865, Section 25, Moses W. Horne, Jan. 30, 1866; Section 26, John H. Ferrelle, April 19, 1865; Section 26, Oliver Beaugrand, March 9, 1865; Section 26, C. H. Brannock, Jan. 14, 1865; Section 31, C. W. Richardson, Sept. 16, 1866; Section 31, Edgar Conkling, Nov. 8, 1869; Section 33, C. H. Brannock, Nov. 21, 1865; Section 34, C. H. Brannock, Dec. 8, 1862; Section 34, C. H. Brannock, March 8, 1865; Section 35, C. W. Richardson, Sept. 6, 1866; Section 35, Oliver Pauquett, March 23, 1866; Section 35, L. W. Young, Feb. 27, 1866; Section 36, W. Belote & L. Backus, March 27, 1857; Section 36, S. S. Sammons, May 29, 1866; Section 36, C. Stevenson, May 10, 1866; Section 36, John Barber, June 13, 1865; Section 36, John Barber, Oct, 28, 1864; Section 36, Oliver Pauquett, Oct. 28, 1864; Section 36, A. R. Dodge, Aug. 8, 1865; Section 36, James F. Watson, Nov. 18, 1865; Section 36, Chloe Ann Rice, May 23, 1865; Section 36, N. Hanel, July 17, 1866; Section 36, B. W. Loomis, Jan. 6, 1865; Section 36, Peter Spooner, Jan. 5, 1863.

Town 34 North, Range 2 West

Section 2, C. Davison, May 7, 1867; Section 10, Baker, Thomson & Co., May 1, 1867; Section 12, O. Davison, Dec. 22, 1866; Section 14, A. P. McMaster, Jan. 8, 1867; Section 22, A. P. McMaster, Jan. 8, 1867; Section 26, A. P. McMaster, Jan. 8, 1867; Section 33, D. A. Pettibone, Jan. 19, 1867; Section 34, D. A. Pettibone, Jan. 21, 1867; Section 36, H. E. Benson, Nov. 14, 1866; Section 36, Burrows & Rust, Oct, 18, 1867; Section 36, D. A. Pettibone, June 19, 1867.

Town 33 North, Range 2 West

Section 2, H. E. Benson, Nov. 15, 1866; Section 2, D. P. Pettibone, June 21, 1867; Section 2, Burrows & Rust, Oct. 18, 1867; Section 22, Burrows & Rust, Oct. 18, 1867; Section 24, Burrows & Rust, Oct. 18, 1867; Section 26, Burrows & Rust, Oct. 18, 1867; Section 34, Burrow a & Rust, Oct. 18, 1867; Section 36, Burrows & Rust, Oct. 18, 1867.

Town 33 North, Range 3 West

Section 10, John L. Woods, June 12, 1869; Section 12, C. L. Ortman, Oct. 19, 1871; Section 14, Ephraim Nelson, Sept. 9, 1871; Section 14, Ephraim Nelson, Oct. 6, 1871; Section 14, John L. Woods, June 12, 1869; Section 14, Ortman & Rotheschilds, Oct. 19, 1871; Section 31, Ephraim Nelson, Sept. 9, 1871; Section 32, Ephraim Nelson, Sept. 9, 1871.

Town 34 North, Range 3 West

Section 4, David Smith, Oct. 20, 1871; Section 4, William E. Dodge, Jan. 14, 1870.

Town 35 North, Range 3 West

Section 12, J. W. Duncan, Feb. 4, 1854; Section 13, J. W. Duncan, Oct. 13, 1854; Section 13, J. W. Duncan, July 19, 1853; Section 13, Robert Meadowcroft, Aug. 16, 1855; Section 14, J. W. Duncan, Oct. 13, 1854; Section 26, William Scott, July 27, 1850; Section 27, William Scott, July 27, 1850; Section 27, M. Spooner, July 5, 1855; Section 28, M. Spooner, Nov. 19, 1855.

Town 36 North, Range 3 West

Section 2, J. W. Duncan, July 4, 1853; Section 5, Anthony Kawortimmkong, Dec. 8, 1872; Section 6, Julius A. Austin, Sept. 21, 1858; Section 6, Antoine Shananakett, Jan. 7, 1867; Section 7, Antoine Shananakett, Jan. 7, 1867; Section 8, Joseph Shamonaquett, Sept. 13, 1872; Section 8, Frances Shamonaquett, Sept. 13, 1872; Section 17, Isaac Shamonaquett, Sept. 13, 1872; Section 18, Ignace Kawbenaw, Sept. 13, 1872; Section 18, Moses Nanggashaw, Sept. 13, 1872; Section 19, Joseph Au-say-gon, Aug. 19, 1872; Section 20, Joseph Nofitagnaha, June 17, 1852; Antoine Kannonishgaw, July 2, 1855; Section 23, J. W. Duncan, Sept. 25, 1854; Section 24, J. W. Duncan, Sept. 25, 1854; Section 25, J. W. Duncan, June 11, 1853; Section 28, to the governor of Michigan in trust for the Indians of whom Kic-shago-way is chief, Jan. 8, 1849; Section 28, Joseph Au-say-gon, Aug. 19, 1871; Section 29, to the governor of Michigan in trust for the Indians of whom Kic-shago-way is chief, Jan. 8, 1849; Section 31, Match Oki-ba-nagust, May 2, 1854; Section 33, Samuel H. Price, Sept. 12, 1854.

Town 37 North, Range 3 West

Section 16, John and Thomas Charlton, March 10, 1872; Section 26, J. W. Duncan, Sept. 19, 1858; Section 27, J. W. Duncan, Sept. 19, 1858; Section 32, Canal land, May 25, 1855; Section 33, Canal land, May 25, 1855; Section 34, James M. Turner, Aug. 19, 1874; Section 34, J. W. Duncan, Sept. 19, 1853.

Town 38 North, Range 8 West

Section 1, Charles R. Kniffen, Jan. 9, 1875; Section 2, Charles R. Kniffen, Jan. 9, 1875; Section 5, M. Reddy, June 10, 1875; Section 7, James M. Turner, Aug. 25, 1874; Section 17, W. H. Calkins, Sept. 8, 1875; Section 18, Charles Stimpson, Aug. 19, 1875; Section 18, M. L. Thatcher, Oct. 19, 1875; Section 22, James M. Turner, Aug. 25, 1874; Section 23, James M. Turner, Aug. 25, 1874; Section 32, E. B. Cook, Jan. 1, 1875; Section 33, Samuel D. Romain, Aug. 19, 1874; Section 34, Samuel D. Romain, Aug. 19, 1874; Section 35, Samuel D. Romain, Aug. 19, 1874.

Town 39 North, Range 3 West

Section 7, Edgar Conkling et al., Oct. 8, 1853; Section 18, Edgar Conkling, et al., Oct. 8, 1853; Section 19, Edgar Conkling et al., Oct. 8, 1853; Section 19, O. M. Barnes, Aug. 19, 1874; Section 20, Mark Flannigan, Aug. 19, 1874; Section 20, Duncan Doty; Aug. 19, 1874; Section 26, Jared Dingman, Aug. 19, 1874; Section 28, J. A. Wendell, April 27, 1858; John Hoban, Aug. 22, 1874; Section 29, Thomas Hoban, Oct. 1, 1874; Section 30, John Hoban, Aug. 22, 1874; Section 34, Jared Dingman, Aug. 21, 1874; Section 34, William Devine, Jan. 26, 1875; Section 35, Jared Dingman, Aug. 21, 1874; Section 36, G. H. S. L. by Charles Wilson, Oct. 10, 1874.

Early Movements—First Lighthouse—First Land Office—An Ancient Relic—Statistics County Agricultural Society—Indian Village—Church Incorporations—Postoffices—Lumber Statistics.

In the Manitawauba Chronicle, the first newspaper published in the village of Cheboygan, is given an account of an Indian battle which occurred upward of two hundred years ago at the mouth of Cheboygan River, between the Ottawas living at St. Ignace and the Ausegumugs living at Pequodenonge or Old Mackinac.

For some actual or fancied injury which the Ausegumugs received at the hands of the Ottawas, the former crossed the straits and while the warriors of the Ottawa tribes were absent, massacred two of their women who were at work in the fields.

Upon returning the Ottawa braves formed a band and determined to cross the straits and avenge the death of these women. The Ausegumugs had by this time departed upon an expedition against some tribes living farther toward the south, and the Ottawa chieftain, disdaining to avenge himself upon helpless women and children, followed their trail as far as the mouth of the Cheboygan River. Here he ordered his men to conceal themselves until their enemies should return. After a few days of weary watching and waiting, the unsuspecting Ausegumugs appeared upon the beach, covered with the dust and dirt of their long and fatiguing journey.

It was a sultry August day. The sun was sinking down in the western horizon. The face of proud Huron, free from frowns, was like glass in bright sunlight; not a zephyr was astir; not a leaf dared to move; no sound broke upon the ear save the noise of the distant waterfall or the occasional chirping of the little bird in the dense forest Shade, but a stillness of death reigned over land and sea. With no thought of danger or death, the tired, warriors now plunge into the sparkling waters to bathe and refresh themselves previous to pursuing their journey homeward, but while in the midst of this delightful exercise, the shrill war-whoop of the Ottawa braves broke nature's stillness, and told them that death had all the time been lurking in the adjacent thickets. The Ottawas now rushed into the water, and the tomahawk and scalping-knife, terrible in the hands of a savage, were made to do effective work upon the helpless Ausegumugs. Old Huron grew red with anger, but still the work of death went on, until of all that band not a warrrior was left to carry the sad news back to Pequodenonge.

This was an event of more than two centuries ago, and is a type of many similar events which transpired in this region during the sway of the red man.

There are incidental notices of Cheboygan River during the time of the French and English war, and also during the terrible English and French and Indian wars, of which Pontiac was the leader.

The first settlers in the country located on the Cheboygan River near its mouth, as stated in the history of Cheboygan village. As in all this lake country where fishing was engaged in the manufacture of fish barrels was a pioneer industry. Lumbering soon followed, and some of the early settlers came to work in the mills and subsequently settled upon land or engaged in other pursuits.

In the summer of 1850, L. P. Riggs settled on Mullet Lake, and the following year Medard Metivier settled on the same lake.

Peter McDonald came about this time and soon afterward settled upon his farm in the town of Duncan.

Charles Bellant came about 1852 and worked at lumbering; then settled upon a farm in the town of Beaugrand. Oliver Beaugrand was also an early settler in the same town which was named in honor of him.

Adolphus Paquin settled in Duncan, and Charles Brannock kept the light-house for a time, and then located in Inverness.

William H. Maultby located in Inverness, E. E. Dodge, John LaRue, August Grimm, Sebastian Nepot, Michael Shields, Jacob Wilson and George Laprelle.

John Vincent was also an early settler in Beaugrand.

William Stewart and William Hudson in Duncan, and Cyril Legault in Grant were also early settlers.

H. N. Ball, Donald McDougal and Robert Micklejohn were also early settlers.

James Madison Starks was one of the characters of an early day. He was a native of Virginia, and came to Cheboygan from the north shore where he had married a half-breed. He was the first to administer the rite of baptism by immersion in the Cheboygan River. He was in the habit of immersing his wife ahout twice a week, after which he would put her in bed and dry her clothes by the fire. He afterward removed to Wisconsin.

There were two Mormon families among the early settlers, named Chessman and Wheelock. The former had five wives, but the latter was only able to keep one. Chessman moved away and Wheelock became a permanent resident of the county.

The first grist-mill in the county was built by a man named Campbell, who came here at an early day, and was in the employ of the American Fur Company. It afterward fell into the hands of Michael Douseman, who resided at the time on Mackinac Island. The mill was located on the south shore, east from Old Mackinaw, on Douseman's Creek. It ceased running in 1839.

The next mill, and the first after settlement in the county began, was one erected by William Myers, near the water mill, in 1860. He obtained the stones, which were French burr, from Douseman's Creek, where they had lain some time after Douseman's mill had gone into ruin, and placed them in this mill, and used them there about five years, when he took them to his mill in the township of Grant.

The first mail route in the county was from Saginaw to Sault Ste. Marie, via Cheboygan, established in 1846.

It took two weeks to make the trip. Dog trains were used as conveyances.

In 1852 there was a road cut for a tramway in a direct line with the water mill, near the dam, to Duncan Bay. J. W. Duncan sent a number of Swedes from Chicago to work on the road. They brought the ship fever with them and quite a number of them died.

In 1858 a road was cut through from Cheboygan to Duncan Bay, and in 1870 this road was straightened.

The First Light-house

was the Cheboygan light, located on the mainland, in the township of Duncan, about one and a half miles from Duncan City, and opposite to the south point of Bois Blanc Island, and from Old Fort Mackinac on the mainland northwest by west 1/4 west sixteen and three-quarters miles. Latitude north 45 deg., 40 rnin., 9 sec, longitude west 81 deg., 24 min., 36 sec, and marks the east entrance into the south channel of the straits of Mackinac, which at this point is three miles wide. It was constructed in 1851, by Messrs. Rhodes and Warner, of Ohio, under the superintendence of Capt. Shook, of the U. S. engineers.

It was a brick round tower, with spiral stairs, resting on stone foundation, separate from the dwelling; height about forty feet from the foundation. William Drew was the first keeper.

On account of water washing away the foundation and rendering the house unsafe, it was taken down and the present one was constructed.

Cheboygan Light, No. 592, of the list of United States Lights for 1876, was built in 1859, on the site of the former one, which was taken down, being considered unsafe. It is a fixed white light of the fifth order of lens, varied by white flashes, one minute and a half between them. It is visible twelve statute miles distant. The tower is on the keeper's dwelling, which rests on a stone foundation. The tower is thirty-three feet high from the base to the focal plane. The light itself is thirty-seven feet above the level of the lake. The arc illuminated is s. w. 1/4 w. b. n'd to e. 3/4 s. The first keeper of this house was George Lavine. This is the only one in the county.

The First United States Land Office

for this region prior to the organization of this county was the Genesee District land office, and was located at Flint, Mich. In 1855 it was transferred to Duncan. In the winter of 1857 and 1858 the office, comprising the books, papers and fire-proof safe, were conveyed on a sleigh to Mackinac Island by Medard Metivier. From thence the office was some time after removed to Traverse City, and still later to Reed City.

An Ancient Relic

Some time during the year 1881 men working upon the railroad bed then being constructed, dug up an ancient and interesting relic on Mill Creek, a short distance from Mackinaw City. It consists of a piece of thin copper, nine and a half inches square, upon which is engraved in a rough manner the following inscription:

Here Lieth the Body of
John Annan Late Corpl
in the 2nd Battn 60th Regt
Who departed this Life feby 10
Anno Domini 1771
Aged 51 years

There are three holes in each edge of the square, which would indicate that it had been nailed to a board, and it was probably used in place of a head stone to mark the grave. If it had been used as a plate on the coffin it would have been deeper in the earth. It is remarkable that after so long a lapse of time this plate should be recovered in so good a condition. Unfortunately it was slightly damaged by being struck with the mattock in the hands of the workman who dug it up, but it was straightened out so that the inscription is perfectly legible.

The first wheat sown in the county was Nov. 2, 1851. Horatio Nelson Ball sowed wheat sent by J. W. Duncan, of Chicago, on one and a quarter acres of land, about twelve miles from Cheboygan. The stumps were on the land, and a previous potato crop had been taken off it. The grain was reaped in the following season, and measured fifty-one bushels and one peck, and was sold to J. W. Duncan. Mrs. Ball made the first cheese, in 1849 or 1850.

The first brick yard in the county was owned by Joseph Young, and was located on the east side of the river.

Agriculture progresses slowly in a lumbering region, and this was true in Cheboygan County. For many years there was but little business of any kind carried on in the county. In 1860 the population of the county was only 517, and but 483 in 1864. Between that year and 1870 the population increased to 2,197, but the increase was principally at Cheboygan village. In 1874 the census showed a population of 3,070, and in that time only a few persons had settled in the farming districts. In 187 1 the land in the eastern part of the county came into market and settlers began to come in, and in 1876-77 the general settlement of the county began.

In 1874 there were 201 farms in the county; number of acres in farms, 72,196; number of acres of taxable land, 285,352.06; number of acres of improved land, 2,898.

In 1873 the farm products raised in the county were as follows: Bushels of wheat, 1,351; corn, 204; potatoes, 14,900; tons of hay cut, 1,229; pounds of wool sheared, 745; pounds of butter made, 5,390; pounds of maple sugar made, 4,501.

From the statistics of 1881 relating to the farms and farm products of the state of Michigan, we gather the following statistics of Cheboygan County: Lands in farms in 1881—Acres improved, 5,909; unimproved, 20,996; total acreage, 26,906; total number of farms 292, averaging 92.14 acres per farm. This is exclusive of cities and townships of which the reports do not show the number of farms or acres, Benton Township not being included in the report. The following is the report by townships, showing the number of farms, acres per farm, acres improved, acres unimproved and the total average:






Average Acres






93 50






126 50












108 11






86 70






70 01






125 18






136 33

In 1880 there was 193 acres in wheat, yielding 8,795 bushels; 85 acres in corn, yielding 3,477 bushels of ears; 507 acres in oats, with a yield of 8,971 bushels; 2,087 acres in grass, yielding 2,028 tons of hay; 3 1-2 acres of barley, 44 bushels yield; 273 acres in peas, 8,572 bushels yield; 209,088 acres potatoes, yielding 22,062 bushels. This is exclusive of Benton Township for which no report is given.

The following is the report of the live stock of the county in 1881, 6 months old and over: Horses, 381; milch cows, 355; cattle other than milch cows, 875; hogs, 256; sheep, 254; number of sheep sheared in 1880, 204; yielding 1,345 pounds of wool. The township of Benton is also omitted in this report. This omission makes a great difference in the showing of the county, especially in horses, as most of the extensive lumber operators reside in Benton Township, including McArthur, Smith & Co., Thompson Smith and Cheboygan Lumber Company, the heaviest operators in this section.

The population in 1880 was distributed as follows: Beaugrand, 594; Benton, 2,792; Burt, 340; Duncan, 270; Grant, 773; Inverness, 1,027; Munro, 140; Tuscarora, 588.

County Agricultural Society

Friday, January, 18, 1878, in response to a call signed by some sixty leading farmers and citizens of Cheboygan County, a meeting was held at the court-house to take steps toward organizing a county agricultural society. The meeting was called to order by Moses W. Horne, and upon motion Rev. Charles P. Whitecar, at that time pastor of the M. E. Church, was elected chairman, and C. S. Ramsay, of the Tribune, secretary. After a general discussion of the subject, W. Chandler offered a resolution to the effect that a county agricultural society be organized, and the resolution was unanimously adopted.

Upon motion a committee of three, consisting of Col. H. G. Davis, W. S. Humphrey and A. B. Riggs, was appointed to draft by-laws and constitution and report at an adjourned meeting to be held two weeks from that day.

Upon motion it was voted that a board of directors, consisting of one member from each organized township and three from the village of Cheboygan, should be elected. The following persons were elected: Benton, Moses W. Horne; Inverness, William B. Ellis; Duncan, William Stewart; Burt, Thomas Crump; Grant, L. K. Weston; Beaugrand, James Barclay; Tuscarora, E. A. Faunce; Nunda, Thomas Jamey; village of Cheboygan, Robert Patterson, H. G. Davis and Watts S. Humphrey.

Friday, February 1, 1878, the adjourned meeting was held, the attendance being good. W. S. Humphrey, from the committee appointed the previous meeting on organization, reported articles of association which were adopted, as was also the constitution as reported by the same gentleman. After collecting the one dollar necessary to membership from a large number present, the election of officers took place with the following result: President, Robert Patterson; vice-president, W. B. Ellis; secretary, C. S. Ramsay; treasurer, A. R. Dodge, auditing committer, G. D. V. Rollo and A. B. Riggs.

The first fair, under the auspices of the Cheboygan County Agricultural Society, was held Friday and Saturday, Sept. 27 and 28, 1878, on the grounds of the Cheboygan Horse Association. The society hnd erected a building especially for the anticipated exhibit, but the result showed that those in charge had greatly underestimated the amount of room required to accommodate an exhibit of such magnitude as the farmers brought in, the building proving too small. The exhibit was a very encouraging one, the display of fruits, vegetables, grain, etc., being a very fine one, and surprising to many who attended. The display of live stock was good, and attracted much attention, the fancy department was attractive and interesting. There was a total of 151 entries made in classes for which premiums were offered, in addition to which were a great many entries made only for the purpose of exhibition, and which added very much to the success of the exhibit and to the interest of the fair. The receipts were just about enough to pay premiums and expenses, which, considering it was the first fair, was thought to be quite a success.

At the annual meeting, held at the court-house, Monday, January 13, 1879, the following officers were elected: President, Robert Patterson; vice-president, Moses W. Horne; secretary, C. S. Ramsay; treasurer, H. G. Davis, auditing committee, G. D. V. Rollo and A. R. Dodge.

At this meeting the time of holding the annual fair was changed from September to the first week in October.

The second annual fair was held in the court-house and on the grounds adjacent thereto, on Thursday, Friday and Saturday, October 2, 8 and 4, 1879. Notwithstanding the weather was very unpropitious, the display was in some respects an improvement over the first fair, more particularly in the grain and stock departments. The wet weather discouraged many from attending, and the membership tickets sold fell considerably below that of the previous year, and when the board figured up the receipts and expenditures it was found that financially the fair had not proved a success, and that only 50 per cent of the premiums could be paid. The number of entries was greater than at the first fair, and the exhibit consisted of a much greater variety.

At the next annual meeting, held Saturday, February 21, 1880, the following officers were elected: President, Robert Patterson; vice-president, Moses W. Horne; secretary, Frank Shepherd; treasurer, William Stewart; auditors, G. D. V. Rollo and A. R. Dodge.

The third annual fair was held at the Cheboygan Driving Park, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, September 29 and 30, and October 1, 1880. Again was the society unfortunate as to weather, the first two days being very stormy and disagreeable. The result was disastrous as far as the exhibit was concerned, though the articles exhibited were highly creditable to the county. The races Thursday and Friday afternoons attracted quite a large attendance, so that financially it was more of a success than the fair of the previous year, all premiums awarded being paid in full.

At the annual meeting, held January 10, 1881, the following officers were elected: President, F. M. Sammons; vice-president, P. H. McDonald; secietary, Frank Shepherd; treasurer, M. W. Horne; auditors, W. B. Ellis and C. S. Ramsay.

The fourth annual fair was held Thursday, Friday and Saturday, October 6, 7 and 8, 1881, and as far as the exhibition was concerned was the best that had been given in the county. The farmers became interested in the matter and as a consequence every township in the county but two was represented in the display, and the universal verdict was that the exhibit would have done credit to many of the older settled and more populous counties of the state, and visitors from the southern part of the state compliment the society, the farmers and Cheboygan County on the fine display made in all departments. But again wet weather was the rule and as a consequence the attendance was small, so that financially the fair was not so much of a success as it deserved. In accordance with an amendment to the constitution, adopted at a previous annual meeting, the election of officers took place on the second day of the fair with the following result: President, W. S. Humphrey; vice-president, Thomas Richardson; secretary, Jacob Walton; treasurer, M. W. Horne.

The fifth annual fair was held at Cheboygan Driving Park, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, October 18, 19 and 20, 1882. The grounds had been especially prepared and everything done to insure a successful exhibit, but from discouragement at the previous fairs, from the unpropitious weather, or from some other cause, the farmers of the county did not take the interest in the success of the fair that they should have done, and the result was the exhibit was not so good as that of the year previous; the quality was there but the quantity was lacking.

The sixth annual fair was held on the grounds of the Driving Park, September 26, 27 and 28, 1883.

Officers in 1883: President, Jacob Walton; vice-president, William B. Ellis; secretary, H. J. Miner; treasurer, M. W. Horne; auditors, Frank Shepherd, E. Z. Perkins.

School Matters

The following information is taken from the school inspector's report of 1883:

Town of Benton: Number of districts, 3; total number of school children, 1,181; number of school buildings, 3; total indebtedness, $8,000.

Town of Burt: Number of districts, 5; total number of school children, 126; number of school buildings, 5; total indebtedness, $300.

Town of Beaugrand: Number of districts, 3; total number of school children, 381; number of school buildings, 3; total indebtedness, $1,179.60.

Town of Duncan: Number of districts, 1; total number of school children, 74; number of school buildings, 1; total indebtedness, $21.

Town of Grant:—Number of districts, 7; total number of school children, 312; number of school buildings, 7; total indebtedness, $1,260.94.

Town of Ellis:—Number of districts, 3; total number of school children, 33; number of school buildings, 2.
Town of Inverness:—Number of districts, 4; total number of school children, 411; number of school buildings, 4.

Town of Mentor:—Number of districts, 5; number of school children, 70; number of school buildings, 5; total indebtedness, $875.00.

Town of Munro:—Number of districts, 3; total number of school children, 122; number of school buildings, 3; total indebtedness, $534.00.

Town of Nunda:—Number of districts, 3; total number of school children, 54; number of school buildings, 3; total indebtedness, $705.

Town of Tuscarora:—Number of districts, 5; total number of school children, 215; number of school buildings, 5; total indebtedness, $1,374.70.

The Hemlock Extract Factory

is situated on Mullet Lake, about seven miles from Cheboygan. It was formerly owned by Newton, Ellis & Buckingham. It was built in 1873, burned down in July, 1875, and rebuilt in May, 1876. It is now owned by Newton & Ellis, and is an important and prosperous industry.

Indian Village

is located on Section 28, Township 36 north, of Range 3 west, and is in the town of Burt. It was surveyed in the year 1813. In 1849 the state of Michigan purchased of the United States government sections 28 and 29, and it was deeded to the "governor of Michigan in trust for the Indians of whom Kic-shago-way is chief." There is a Roman Catholic Church and a school-house at the village. Their cemetery is near the church.

Church Organizations

In addition to the church organizations mentioned in connection with the villages, there are the following:

The Riggsville M. E. Church was duly organized at a meeting held at Richardson's school-house July 26, 1873. The following persons were elected trustees: Edward S. Riggs, Samuel Embury, Henry V. Massey, D. Riggs, A. B. Riggs.

The First Congregational Church of Rondo, town of Mentor, was duly organized as a corporate body in September, 1883. The articles of association were signed by the following persons: O. B. Thurston, Wm. Briggs, Giles S. Briggs, C. H. Hoffman, Emma Hoffman, Sarah G. Briggs, S. J. Pike, W. H. Briggs, Mariah Briggs, Mary Briggs.

The First Congregational Church of Wolverine was organized as a corporate body in September, 1883. The articles of association were signed by the following persons: Allisha Burrows; Geo. A. Mulholland, Mary A. Roaney, M. E. Roaney, W. W. Caster, C. J. Brook.


The names of the postoffices in Cheboygan County are as follows: Cheboygan, Sova, Ball, Mullet Lake, Riggsville, Topinabee, Koehler, Indian River, Burt Lake, Rondo, Mentor, Wolverine, Mackinaw City.

Cheboygan Lumber Operations, 1883

Thompson Smith: Sawed lumber, 26,000,000; on dock, 10,500,000; lath, 10,000,000.

William Smith: Sawed lumber, 7,000,000; lath, 3,000,000.

W. & A. McArthur: Sawed lumber, 14,000,000; on dock, 500,000; lath, 2,000,000; pickets, 30,000.

Southern Michigan Cedar & Lumber Company: Sawed lumber, 4,000,000; on dock, 1,000,000; shingles, 8,000,000; shingles on dock, 1,000,000.

Quay & Son: Sawed shingles, 2,500,000.

J. B. McArthur: Sawed lumber, 7,500,000; on dock, 1,000,000.

Nelson & Bullen: Sawed lumber, 20,000,000; on dock, 2,000,000; lath, 2,000,000.

Young & Co.: Sawed lumber, 2,500,000; on dock, 700,000.

Mattoon, Ogden & Co.: Sawed, 3,500,000; on dock, 1,200,000.

There are also a few small mills in the county not included in this list that would slightly increase the aggregate product for the year.

Village of Cheboygan

Location of Village—Early History—Origin and History of the Business of W. & A. McArthur—Beginning of General Business—Cheboygan Churches—School History—Secret Orders —Cheboygan Newspapers—Incorporation of the Village— Cheboygan Post Office—Banking —Hotels—Miscellaneous Industries—Duncan City—History of Thompson Smith's Operations

Cheboygan village is the county seat of Cheboygan County. It is situated on the south shore of Lake Huron, at the mouth of the Cheboygan River, and near Duncan Bay, which affords a safe harbor for vessels in stormy weather. It is distant from Mackinac Island eighteen miles, and from Detroit 332 miles, and from Chicago 358 miles.

The village is built on a plain which has a gradual ascent back from the lake affording pleasant building sites.

The village lies in full view of a large expanse of Lake Huron. Directly opposite is the island of Bois Blanc, which stretches in a direction parallel with the main shore for a distance of fifteen miles. Between the shore of the mainland and the island the water channel has an average width of seven miles, and forms the south passage of the Straits of Mackinaw. This is the most direct channel connecting the waters of Lake Huron with those of Lake Michigan. With the numerous vessels usually in sight a most magnificent view is formed. In front stretches the white beach of Bois Blanc, with a background of dense evergreens, the tall pines and hemlocks standing in bold relief against the sky. The atmosphere is usually very transparent, and sometimes a mirage is formed by which a counterpart of the island appears floating in the air, weaving fantastic shapes, and waving lines, of reflected objects which assume constantly changing fonns, or slowly disappear. By this optical illusion passing vessels appeal voyaging in the air, and the distant trees, cut midway in two, vanish slowly away as if their branches had become feathered wings. To the right is Duncan Bay, with its fine harbor and projecting docks, which are loaded with piles of lumber. The tall smoke-stacks of the mills roll out the murky breath of the hungry furnaces, which, after the manner of such, devour sawdust with an appetite that would astonish Vulcan himself. Away to the left in a northwesterly direction, just beyond the extremity of Bois Blanc, tower the outlines of Mackinaw Island. On a clear day the snow-white walls of the fort and its buildings maybe clearly seen, with the heights of Fort Holmes and Robinson's Folly as a background, while further to the left is the narrow passage of the Straits.

Early History

The first visit to any part of Cheboygan County that is connected with subsequent history was made in July, 1845, by Jacob Sammons and Moses W. Horne, who came over to Cheboygan in a sail-scow called the "Bunker Hill," commanded by Captain Moses Nason. They went up the river a little ways and cut a pine tree, from which they made staves and took them to Mackinac. That was the first pine tree ever cut in the county as far as known.

The first settlement was made in the spring of 1846, when Jacob Sammons brought his family and settled in a house he had built on what is now Water Street, between First and Second Streets. Mr. Sammons was born near Syracuse, N. Y., in the year 1804. In 1833 he removed to Chicago, and remained there until 1841, when he removed to Mackinac, where he carried on the business of coopering. Soon after Mr. Sammons' family were settled, Alexander McLeod arrived, and built a log-house twelve feet square, covered with hollow logs. There were two brothers, A. and R. McLeod, who came from the State of New York for the purpose of lumbering, bringing with them men, machinery, tools, etc.

The "Bunker Hill" was the first sailing vessel coming into the Cheboygan River.

The first cooper was Mr. Sammons, who established his shop when he first settled here, in 1846, near his house on Water Street. Mr. Sammons had employed for him M. W. Horne, Anson Delmadge, James Starkley and others. The first named, Moses W. Horne, made the first fish barrels in the county in 1846.

There was a blacksmith shop opened in 1846 by two men named Ring and Marble, who remained here but a short time. One of these men, Ring, and perhaps both, were engaged in the nefarious business of manufacturing counterfeit coin, ten and fifty cent pieces. Mr. Medard Metivier saw the apparatus they used when discovered. They did not stay very long, but left for parts unknown.

Peter La Belle was the first blacksmith who worked at this branch of industry in the county, in 1848. His shop was owned by Alexander McLeod, and stood on the west side of Main Street below Third Street, near the corner. It was afterwards torn down.

The first saw-mill in the county was built in the winter of 1846-'47, by A. and R. McLeod, some ten rods above the present McArthur Mill. It had two old-fashioned upright saws set in frames and a lath-mill attached to it. It cut in its best days from ten to fifteen thousand feet of lumber in twenty-four hours.

Mr. Sammons continued the coopering business until 1848. In the winter of 1848-9 he and Peter McKinley built the first steam saw-mill here. It was situated at the mouth of the river and had two upright saws, capable of cutting from eight to twelve thousand feet of lumber in twenty-four hours. It was kept in running order for only a few years and then allowed to go into decay.

In 1853 Mr. Sammons moved to Mullet Lake and engaged in farming. In 1855 he was appointed keeper of the light-house, which position he retained about two years. He died Oct. 27, 1859. His wife died June 15, 1874. The children born to them were Francis M. Sylvester, Sarah, Mary, Imogene, two daughters named Martha, one of whom died before the other was born, Elsie L., John C., Jacob and Charles. Seven are yet living.

The first child born in the county was Martha Jane, daughter of Jacob and Chloe Sammons, Feb. 8, 1847.

The first ship carpenter was John Vincent, who located here soon after Mr. Sammons. He built the first vessel of any kind built here, which was a sloop-rigged scow, called at that time the "Elizabeth," constructed in 1847, by John Vincent, for Alexander McLeod & Co., for use in constructing the dam up near the water mill, and was afterward purchased by Captain H. F. Todd, and refitted into a craft to sail on the lakes.

The next was a schooner-built scow, named the "D. R. Holt," length eighty-four feet keel, twenty-two and one-half feet beam, and six feet hold, constructed in 1848, also by John Vincent, for A. R. McLeod & Co. Its first cargo was twenty-eight cords of stone from Cheneaux for Waugoshance light-house.

The first steamboat touching at Cheboygan was the "Stockman," in 1851. About the same time it brought over a pleasure party from Mackinac Island and landed at Duncan. The first steamboat that entered the Cheboygan River was the " Columbia," Captain Pratt, in 1851. It ran from Sault Ste. Marie to Green Bay. It brought three cows, one for M. W. Horne and two for M. Metivier. These were the first cows in the county.

The first marriage in the county and village was Alexander McLeod, Esq., to Miss Catharine Barron, in August, 1850, by Jacob Sammons, Justice of the Peace, in the log house of John Vincent, located then on Main Street, nearly opposite where Nelson & Bullen's store now stands.

Doubtless the next marriage that occurred was that of Hiram L. Burr, to Miss Martha Dodge, in the same year or not long after. The "ceremonies" were held in the "Globe" boarding-house, conducted by Alexander McLeod, justice of the peace, who asked the couple "if they wanted to get married real bad?" They replied that they did. "Then," said "his Honor," "I pronounce you man and wife," and that was about all there was of the "ceremony."

The first village street through the village was Main Street, which was laid out in the year 1850. The road prior to this time ran near the river, about where the Benton House, Fountain House, M. W. Horne's residence, and Bullen & Nelson's store now are, and thence to the water mill.

The first bridge below the dam across the river was built in 1850, by Messis. Duncan & McLeod. In 1862 a swing bridge was built at Third Street by J. F. Watson and F. M. Sammons.

Port of entry was established at Duncan in 1866, by act of Congress passed June 20, 1866, with Levi Chapman as deputy collector. The office was changed in 1876 to Cheboygan, since which time C. S. Ramsay has been deputy collector.

The old wharf out in the lake at the mouth of the river, was constructed in 1861, by F. M. Sammons, H. F. Todd and George Stevenson, contractors, for Harrison Averill. Some time after, one midnight, a part of it floated off while full of wood, with Mr. Stevenson on it, and thus he became captain by the necessities of the case, though doubtless he had no certificate as such. He soon discovered a boat attached to his "ark," so he took it and made for the shore and waked up the people, who went out and saved most of the wood. The remains landed at Duncan. The dock was rebuilt in 1863, by F. M. Sammons, and made somewhat larger. In the spring of 1876 it followed the example of its predecessor, floated off and went ashore at Duncan. It afterward went to pieces. A part of the roof is used as a roof for a small dwelling-house near the river.

The first tug to enter Cheboygan River was the Frank C. Ferro, owned by Charles Bellant, Captain Clark, Zachariah Lawrence, engineer, in the year 1867. It carried passengers as well as towed vessels. It was the first boat to go above the locks, to Vorce & Barker's mill, in 1870, and then returned. It was the first tug belonging to a resident of this county.

The first steamboat connection made regularly with Cheboygan was the side-wheel steamer Marine City, in 1869; John Robinson, captain; James Reed, engineer; C. A. Chamberlin, clerk, and Alf Welfane, steward. It sailed then between Cleveland, Detroit and Mackinac Island, touching here each way.

The first deaths in the county and village were Emma Jane and Martha, daughters of Jacob and Chloe A. Sammons, the first Nov. 25, the last, Dec. 12, 1846, both by small pox, when quite a number of persons died of the same disease.

The first cemetery was located in 1846, on Water Street, on lot No. 41 of Jacob Sammons' plat of Cheboygan village, in the rear of the lot on the south west corner of Water and Third Streets.

The remains of Jacob Sammons, his two children, Martha and Emma Jane, a wife of Alonzo Cheeseman, and others were buried there.

The first shoemaker was James Triggs, in 1852. His shop was on the river shore, nearly opposite where Mr. Horne's house now stands.

The first fire was a story and a half dwelling which belonged to and was occupied by Cyril and Stanislaus Legault and family, situated on the east side of Cheboygan River, one mile above the site of the present water mill, which was burned down in May, 1850. Loss about $700, destroying everything.

Organization of Business Forces

We come now to speak of the real origin of permanent progress and prosperity in Cheboygan, and of the organization of the forces which have given shape and direction to its career.

It is often the case that the projectors of enterprises which afterward are developed into important magnitudes, are compelled by death or other causes to leave their work before the harvest time has been reached. This was true of Cheboygan.

As already mentioned on preceding pages, the first mill built here was erected by A. & R. McLeod in 1846-'47. This was the water mill which stood above the present mill of W. & A. McArthur. These gentlemen built a dam and secured large tracts of land and planned for extensive lumbering operations. They also built the docks at Duncan Bay. Subsequently, the McLeods were succeeded by the firm of J. W. Duncan & Co. The upright saws in the water mill were changed to muley saws and a siding mill added to the main building. In 1853 a large mill was completed at Duncan. In 1854 Mr. Duncan died, and after a year or two the estate went into court and business operations ceased.

For the next ten years there was practically no progress. Nothing occurred to warrant a hope that a business center might sometime be built up at the mouth of the river. It was not in the natural order of things, however, that so favorable a location for business operations should remain permanently unimproved; and it did not.

John R. McArthur, Lucius Southwick, Geo. W. Swan and John F. McDonald were residents of Livingston County, New York, and in the spring of 1865 visited Cheboygan for the purpose of examining the property of the Duncan estate. The result of their investigation was a purchase of the property which consisted of 14,000 acres of pine land, the water mill, the mill, buildings, and property at Duncan and land about the mouth of the Cheboygan River.

The firm was organized under the title of McArthur, Southwick & Co., and consisted of the four men heretofore mentioned.

After the completion of the purchase, Messrs. McArthur and Swan returned home, while Messrs Southwick and McDonald remained to carry on operations here. They repaired the mill and dam, built a shingle-mill and began the manufacture of lumber and shingles. This was the beginning of a permanent foundation of Cheboygan. It will be observed that as the organization of this industry became perfected, the various elements of a business center combined, and by 1869 the village began to take shape and grew rapidly.

In July, 1866, William McArthur purchased Mr. Southwick's interest. This gentleman was a son of John R. McArthur, and an extensive contractor on public works. He resided at this time at Mt. Morris, N. Y. During the fall of 1866, a portion of the property, consisting of about 1,200 acres of land, including the Duncan property and some in the village, was sold to Messrs. Sanford Baker, Archibald Thompson and Robert Patterson, and at this point the history of Duncan diverges.

In 1867 Ward B. McArthur, a nephew of John R. McArthur, and at that time a merchant in McHenry County, Ill., purchased a part of John F. McDonald's interest.

During 1867 they organized the Cheboygan Slack Water Navigation Company under an act of legislature passed March 25th of that year. They began the construction of their works in 1868, and completed them in 1869. They consist of a canal eighteen feet wide and eighty feet long, with a lift of nine feet. The tolls of the first year of its operation were $1,500. This was one of the most important improvements that has been made in the county.

About this time and prior to the canal improvement, William Smith, of Westfield, N. Y., purchased the interest of John R. McArthur and Geo. W. Swan, and Geo. W. Cuyler, of Palmyra, N. Y., purchased the remaining interest of John F. McDonald. The firm was reorganized under the title of McArthur, Smith & Co. During 1868 a new saw-mill was built, with a capacity of about ten million feet of lumber a season. Since that time various improvements have been made and the capacity considerably increased. The product of the mill ranges from twelve to sixteen million feet of lumber a season.

In 1869 the shingle-mill was changed to a grist-mill which is still in operation.

In 1870 Archibald McArthur a brother of William, purchased a part of William Smith's interest. The next change in the personnel of the firm was occasioned by the deaths of Messrs. Smith and Cuyler. After the death of the former his interest was represented by his sons, C. R. and William, to whom it was bequeathed by will. Charles R. Smith also owned an individual interest.

In 1875-76 the dock and warehouse business was started. This is still continued, and is an important factor, not only in the operations of the firm, but in the general business of the village. The firm deal largely in coal, salt, lime, wood, etc., and furnish as good dockage facilities as are found on the lakes.

In 1879 occurred the death of Ward B. McArthur, and in June, 1882, William and Archibald McArthur purchased the entire business, and the firm changed to W. & A. McArthur.

During these years pine lands have been purchased, and the energies of the firm directed to the improvement of their interests, and to aiding in the general progress of the village. In 1870 a large store building was erected and an extensive mercantile business established. Dwellings and other buildings have been erected from time to time, and in 1884 upwards of twenty buildings belong to the property of the firm, constituting a very important part of the village in which they are located. The firm have an extensive lumber yard in Chicago, in charge of Archibald McArthur, who resides in that city.

Such is a brief sketch of a great industry which must be regarded as the parent of Cheboygan, and which has infused life and vigor through all the veins and arteries of progress during nearly a score of years.

A glance at the personnel of these firms is proper in this connection. John R. McArthur was of Highland Scotch descent, and a native of Cooperstown, N. Y. His principal business was that of contractor on public works, but he was also interested in lumbering and farming. His residence at the time he acquired interests at Cheboygan was at Mt. Morris. He died in 1870, at Rochester, N. Y.

Lucius Southwick was a prominent grain dealer in Livingston County, N. Y., and was at the head of the society of Shakers.

John F. McDonald is still a resident of Cheboygan, and is mentioned elsewhere in this work.

William McArthur, resident member of the firm, was born in Steuben County, N. Y., but most of his early life was spent at Mt. Morris. At the age of twenty-one years he began his business career at getting out timber for the New York market. At the time he purchased an interest in the business at Cheboygan, he had been for several years a contractor on public works, and in company with two brothers still carries on that business, the firm being McArthur Bros. This firm, has carried on extensive operations, building railroads and other public works. As already stated he purchased an interest here in 1866, but did not remove here with his family till 1873. Since that time he has given his personal attention to the management of operations at this point. He is a man of thorough business discipline, and pursues a liberal policy in matters which affect the public welfare. His enterprise is manifested in many public improvements which he has carried out either individually or in behalf of the firm. The buildings and property of the firm not only bespeak excellent business management but are of a character that reflect credit upon the community.

Ward B. McArthur died Dec. 11, 1879, leaving a wife and seven children. He was born in Schoharie County, N. Y., Oct. 11, 1823. In 1848 he located in Chemung, Ill., where he engaged in business, and was a prominent citizen of the place. In 1867 he became interested in the business at Cheboygan as already stated, and for seveml years was the only member of the firm who remained here winters. In 1871 he built his residence, which at that time was the finest in the place.

Archibald McArthur was born at Mr. Morris, N. Y., and previous to becoming a partner in this business was in business with his brother William. He removed to Chicago from New Jersey, where he had been engaged on public works, and now attends to the lumber yard and interests of the firm in that city.

In the year 1869 the various professional and business interests of a village began to be represented here. The medical profession had a representative in Dr. A. M. Gerow, who located here in 1868. The legal profession was represented by D. R. Joslin, George W. Bell and Watts S. Humphrey, who settled here in the spring of 1869. The march of progress, however, was not rapid, and as late as 1874 the population of the entire county was only 3,070. The village at this time was as unpromising in appearance as could be imagined. Uncouth and unkempt it straggled along the river and gave no promise of the Cheboygan of 1884.

The first millinery store was opened by Mrs. A. J. Rogers, in May, 1867, on Main Street, below Second.

The first jewelry store was opened by A. Fexer, in May, 1868.

The first harness shop was opened by H. Tuttle, in 1871.

August Rosenblad was the first tailor, in 1868.

The first barber shop and gents' furnishing store were opened by M. J. Kesseler, in the spring of 1869.

The first drug store was opened by Dr. A. M. Gerow and F. M. Sammons, in July, 1869.

The first sidewalk and board fence was constructed in the summer of 1869, by W. W. Strohn, in front of his house, on the northwest corner of Main and Division Streets, being a strip along Main Street of eighty-eight feet in length.

The first planing-mill was built in 1871, by Kemp & Long.

The first dentist was A. L. Curtis, who came here in 1871.

The first hardware store was opened by J. F. Hall, in May, 1872.

The telegraph office was opened in August, 1872. C. W. Farr was then and is now the operator.

The first flour and feed store was opened in 1873 by George P. Langdon.

The first furniture store was started in 1873, by Curtis Abel.

The first brick building was built in 1874, at a cost of $8,000.

Street lamps were established and first lighted in May, 1876.

The first livery stable was started in 1873, by Palmer & Kephart.

The ordinance directing sidewalks to be built was passed by the council June 17, 1871.

The harbor improvements to enable steamers and vessels navigating the lakes, to approach the village through Cheboygan River, were began in 1870, in accordance with acts of Congress, and appropriations made for the same. In June, 1870, the survey was made by General Cram, and the dredging was commenced under the superintendence of Roys J. Cram. These improvements are continued. The channel has now a width of about two hundred feet.

Incorporation Under a Village Charter

In 1871, by special act of legislature, fractional Sections 26, 30, 31 and 32, in fractional Township 38 north, of Range 1 west, was constituted a village. In 1875 it was re-incorporated under a general law of 1873, but some portions of the law having been declared unconstitutional, the village went back to its original charter. In 1877, however, it was re-incorporated under the general law of 1875.

The first charter election in the village was held May 9, 1871, at which time 115 votes were cast. The first officers were as follows: President, W. P. Maiden, M. D.; recorder, H. H. Kezar; trustees: Ward B. McArthur, David Smith, Paul R. Woodard, James N. Reiley, Charles Bellant, Ephraim Nelson; treasurer, Lorenzo Backus; assessor, S. Legault; marshal, Peter Paquin, who served for two months, then resigned, and M. W. Home was appointed for and served the balance of the term.

Presidents of the village for the several years since 1871 have been as follows: 1872, A. P. Newton; 1873, A. P. Newton; 1874, John McKay; 1875, A. P. Newton; 1876, A. P. Newton; 1877, W. W. Strohn; 1878, W. W. Strohn; 1879, J. J. Brown; 1880, James W. McDonall; 1881, James W. McDonald; 1882, James W. McDonald.

Officers in 1883-'84: President, George E. Frost; trustees, Watts S. Humphrey, W. E. Smyth, H. A. Blake, R. Robinson, J. B. McArthur, T. T. Van Arsdale; marshal, Howard Lynn; clerk, C. J. Hunt; treasurer, J. E. Cueny; attorney, George W. Bell.

George E. Frost, president of Cheboygan village in 1883-'84; was born at Pontiac, Mich., in 1851. He studied law in Detroit, and was admitted to the bar in 1875. He remained there engaged in practice until May, 1879, when he removed to Cheboygan and established himself in the practice of law, which he successfully continues. In the spring of 1883 he was elected president of the village, and re-elected in the spring of 1884, being the first Republican ever elected to that office. He has held the office of circuit court commissioner, and at the present time is United States commissioner for the Eastern District of Michigan. Mr. Frost is a young man of recognized ability and integrity, and already occupies a prominent position at the bar and in the community.

Cheboygan Postoffice

A postoffice was first established at Cheboygan in 1846, and was named Duncan. It retained that name until 1870, when it was changed to Cheboygan. The first postmaster was R. McLeod. Since Mr. McLeod, the postmasters have been Bela Chapman, Medard Metivier, Lorenzo Backus, W. M. Belotte, Francis Sammons, C. A. Brace, John Ford and George P. Humphrey, the present incumbent.

The first mail route in the county, was the Saginaw and Sault Ste. Marie. During the winter months dog trains were used to convey the mail.

George P. Humphrey, postmaster at Cheboygan, is a native of Perry, Wyoming County, N. Y. At an early age he removed with his parents to Michigan, and settled near Lansing. He remained in that vicinity until 1862, when he enlisted in Company A, Twentieth Michigan Infantry. In September, 1864, he was taken prisoner and was an inmate of Saulsbury prison until March, 1865. The following June he received his discharge and returned home. The following year he took a position in the register's office of Ingham County, where he remained until the spring of 1870, when he came to Cheboygan, his brother Watts S. Humphrey having settled there a year previous. For about two years after coming here, he was engaged hunting pine lands. From 1876 to 1881, he carried on business at the dock, now Baker's dock. In June, 1882, he received the appointment of postmaster. His family consists of a wife and three children.

Banking Interest

In the spring of 1875, Mr. G. V. D. Rollo came to Cheboygan from Cincinnati, and engaged in the banking business. W. F. De Puy was associated with him until some time in 1878, and the style of the firm was G. V. D. Rollo & Co., until Mr. De Puy sold out, when it was changed to Rollo & Hitchcock. In February, 1882, that firm was succeeded by the Cbeboygan Banking Company, which has since carried on business. In 1883-'84 this company erected a hue brick building, two stories in height, at the corner of Main and Division Streets, for its use. This building is the finest of any yet erected in the village, and is a great improvement to the appearance of the principal street. The cappings are of stone, and the design is an attractive specimen of modern architecture.


The first stopping place for travelers at Cheboygan, was the old boarding-house built by Messrs. A. and R. McLeod, for the men working in their mill. It was given the name of "Globe House." About in 1851, Oliver Paquette kept a hotel in a small building on Main Street, opposite the present store of Nelson & Bullen. The first building designed and kept as a hotel, was built by Medard Metivier in 1854, and called the Cheboygan House. It was kept by Mr. Metivier about two years. Since that time it has experienced many changes, and is now a part of the Spencer House.

The Grand Central is the leading commercial hotel in the village, at the present time. It was built by C. Mills, and kept by him until the summer of 1882, when the property was purchased by J. M. French, who for some time had kept a popular resort-house near the city of Detroit. The Grand Central is a three story frame building well arranged for hotel purposes.

There are also the Benton, Cass, American, Fountain City and other smaller hotels in the village. A new brick hotel is being erected in 1884.

The first castings made in the county were made by Mr. H. A. Blake, in a shop connected with the saw-mill of Watson & Blake, in the year 1870. Not long afterward, Messrs. Blake & Perry started a foundry and machine shop on Main Street. About four months after the business was started, Mr. Blake purchased Mr. Perry's interest, and has carried on the business alone since that time, increasing the capacity of his works as business has demanded.

Murray & Rich also carry on a foundry and machine shop started by J. N. Perry, in 1873. Murray & Rich succeeded Mr. Perry in the fall of 1882.

The boiler works of William Hess were built by him in 1880, and are in successful operation, giving employment to about twenty men.

In 1869 or 1870 Sotton Bros, built a mill above the dam and operated it for a time. It was afterward owned by William Smith. After his death it was operated by C. R. Smith, until 1882, when it burned. Shortly afterward a new mill was built by William Smith, and is now operated by him.

Mattoon, Ogden & Co., and Young & Co. also have mills a short distince from the village.

The Novelty Works of A. R. Thayer were built in the spring of 1883, and are in successful operation.

The South Michigan Cedar and Lumber Company was organized in the fall of 1881, and their saw-mill built in the winter of 1882-'83. The mill is located in the town of Beaugrand, and its annual product is about six million feet of lumber and about the same number of shingles. The company also deal in fence posts and railroad ties. W. J. Watson is secretary and treasurer of the company. The headquarters of the company are at Cheboygan village.

The saw-mill of the Cheboygan Lumber Company is situated near the mouth of the river, and was built in 1880. This company succeeded the firm of Bullen & N. Ison in 1879. W. H. Bullen is president; E. Nelson, secretary and treasurer.

The planing-mill of Smith & Adams, one of the most extensive establishments of its kind in this part of the state, wras built in the fall of 1881, by the present owners. It is located on the lake shore, in the village of Cheboygan, and furnishes employment to an average of twenty men. Smith & Adams are also proprietors of the North Shore line of boats, and own the propellors Messenger and A. C. Van Raalte.

There are a large number of smaller industries which contribute to the general prosperity of the place.

Brewing Company

The Northern Brewery, located at Cheboygan, is one of the important and prosperous industries of that part of Michigan. The business was established in January, by J. F. Maloney and Patrick Maloney, under the firm name of J. F. Maloney & Bro. They purchased the ground and erected the buildings necessary for their business. They manufacture about forty barrels of beer a day, but are soon to enlarge their works in order to meet the rapidly increasing demands for their beer, which already has a wide reputation for its excellence, and is a favorite in the market. The proprietors are men who have had extensive business interests in northern Michigan. Both are natives of Ireland, and emigrated to this country in 1857. In 1867 James F. Maloney started in the grocery business in Detroit, having worked his way along in the world from day labor at whatever offered itself. In 1875 he came to Cheboygan and opened a grocery store. Sometime later he was joined by his brother Patrick Maloney. They also traded along the shore, and had three stores and an interest in a bottling works at Au Sable. They had an interest in two boats which were employed in trade. Upon starting their brewery, they retired from the grocery business. They are enterprising and thorough business men, and are destined to build up an extensive industry advantageous to themselves and important to the locality in which it is situated.

The growth of the village since 1880 has been very rapid. The census of that year gives 2,792 population in the village and town, and in 1881, a population of 5,000 is claimed. Permanent improvements are being made, and the future of the village is most promising. For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1880, the customs receipts were $1,808.85, and for 1883, they were $6,519.23.

The opening of railroad communication in 1882, by the extension of the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw Road to Mackinaw City, was an important event in the history of the village, and gave a new impetus to its prosperity.

Church History

St. Mary's Catholic Church

The history of St. Mary's congregation comprises three periods. 1st, from 1852 to 1859 it formed a station; 2d, from 1859 to 1868 it formed a mission; 3d, from 1868 to the present time it has constituted a parish.

The first Roman Catholic services were held in 1852, by Rev. A. D. J. Piret, who said mass in the house owned by Charles Bellant, which stood on what is now the southwest corner of Third and Water Streets, directly opposite the Benton House.

Father Piret was a Belgian by birth and was then residing at Mackinac Island. He was the first priest to die and be buried in Cheboygau. There were but four or five families here at the time of his first visit, but besides these were a number of young men working in the mill who attended services.

After this time Rev. Angelles VanPamel, an Indian missionary came over from Little Traverse Village. Once he was accompanied by Rev. Bishop Le Fevre, of Detroit, and an Indian chief and twenty other Indians from Little Traverse, at which time he said mass and baptized several children in the house of Philip O'Brien, on the farm owned by Peter McDonald.

Father N. L. Lriffrath also visited here and was succeeded by Father P. B. Murray.

The first attempt at building a house of worship resulted in the erection of a frame which, after a struggle with the elements, was finally blown down aud removed across the river to a lot on Peter McDonald's farm, where the effort to provide a house of worship was made successful. This building is still standing, a relic of the past.

In 1859 St. Mary's congregation became a mission, numbering at this time about thirty-five families; Father Murray was resident priest at Mackinac Island, and was frequently conveyed to and from Cheboygan by Medard Metivier, now a resident of Cheboygan village. He was succeeded by Father Zorn.

The first church bell hung and used in the county was brought here by Father Murray and put up on the chapel.

In October, 1868, the congregation having increased to about seventy families, besides its part of the floating population, Rev. Charles L. De Ceuninck was appointed its first resident pastor, and the congregation became a parish. As soon as Father De Ceuninck was well settled here he set about working for the erection of a new church edifice, the old one being much too small, besides being too far removed from the center of population. Several sites were proposed and much discussion indulged in as to their respective merits; among others a two-acre lot offered and properly deeded by McArthur, Smith & Co. met with so much favor and ground was broken upon the same; still the site of the corner of Fifth and Church streets prevailed, and in 1869 the present church edifice was begun and gradually carried forward to completion as the means of the congregation would permit. The building was 55x100 feet in size aside from the vestibule and sanctuary. It was considered a wild undertaking at the time and was strongly protested against, on the ground that the congregation would never require so large a place of worship. Subsequent history, however, confirms the wisdom of the pastor in preparing a church edifice adapted to the future necessities of the congregation.

In 1875 Father DeCeuninck was succeeded by Rev. John VanGennip, whose piety and zeal are well remembered. In 1881 he erected a school building and a house for the Sisters. In the fall of that year St. Mary's school was opened under direction of the Sisters.

In February, 1882, Father VanGennip was succeeded by Rev. Peter J. Desmedt, who in the fall of 1882 added two new and large rooms to the school, giving the building a seating capacity of 320 pupils.

When the first church was built a burial ground was set apart for the members of the congregation in the immediate vicinity of the chapel. When the new church was erected, a new ground was procured, but it was found undesirable, and in 1874 a new ground of six acres was obtained by donation, Charles Bellant giving three acres, Peter McDonald two acres and David Hudson one acre. This was properly platted, and on November 15, 1874, blessed and dedicated to Catholic burial.

Rev. Peter J. Desmedt, the present pastor, was born in Oostnieuwkeske, West Flanders, Belgium, November 8, 1844. In 1870 he emigrated to America; was first located at Lexington, Michigan. Subsequently he was located at Detroit, Newport and Hubbardston. In February, 1882, he came from the latter place to Cheboygan. Father Desmedt is a gentleman of scholarly attainments, liberal views, and is extremely popular as a citizen of the community.

Methodist Episcopal Church

The First Methodist Episcopal church of Cheboygan was organized October 19, 1868, by Rev. V. G. Boyington, presiding elder of Grand Traverse district, at which time a board of trustees was elected and the necessary business, for the formal organization of a church was transacted. A class had been formed on the 17th of the same month by Rev. William Riley, which consisted of five members, viz: William Riley, F. A. Riley, Arthur M. Gerow, Lewis Weston and M. J. Weston, after which ten others were added, viz: Charles Page, Chloe A. Rice, Barbara A. Buel, Samuel Embury, Almeda Embury, Sophia Schwartz, H. V. Massey, Margaret H. Massey, A. D. Farmer and H. P. Farmer. The first board of trustees was composed of William Riley, A. M. Gerow and F. M. Sammons.

The first building committee was composed of F. M. Sammons, R. Patterson and M. W. Horne. This committee was appointed Aug. 7, 1869. During this year the upright building of the parsonage was completed.

In August, 1872, the church edifice was dedicated. The first pastor was Rev. William Riley. He was a zealous and faithful minister of the gospel, and was the first Protestant minister here to perform the rite of baptism, the marriage ceremony and bury the dead. He was succeeded September, 1870, by Rev. J. A. Van Fleet, who remained one year and was succeeded by Rev. J. A. Wheeler. It was during Mr. Wheeler's pastorate that the church building was completed and dedicated. Mr. Wheeler was succeeded September, 1872, by Rev. S. L. Hamilton, who remained two years. September, 1874, Rev. J. W. H. Carlisle was appointed to this charge, remaining one year and was succeeded by Rev. W. H. Ware. September, 1876, Mr. Ware was succeeded by Rev. Alonzo Rogers, who, after a few months withdrew and joined the Congregational Church. Rev. G. D. Newcomb was employed to supply the church during the remainder of the year. September, 1877, Rev. C. P. Whitecar was appointed to the charge and remained one year, being succeeded September, 1878, by Rev. A. P. Morrison, who remained one year.

September, 1879, Cheboygan, with other adjacent territory within the jurisdiction of the Michigan conference, was ceded to the Detroit conference, and at that time Rev. Newel Newton was appointed to this charge. In 1880 he was succeeded by Rev. W. M. Campbell, who remained until 1883, when he was succeeded by Rev. T. B. Leith.

In March, 1881, the work of repairing and remodeling the church building was commenced. A room for Sunday school, prayer and class meetings was added, and general repairs made upon the building. The church was reopened July 10, 1881, about $1,400 having been expended in improvements.

The classes at Indian River and Riggsville were the direct outgrowth of the church in Cheboygan.

Congregational Church

In the fall of 1871 Rev. J. L. Maile, a Congregational minister, held services in Cheboygan which led the way to the organization of a society.

Dec. 18, 1871, a meeting of citizens was held at the courthouse for the purpose of taking measures toward the support of a Congregational Church.

An executive committee was appointed, and William H. Bunker was elected treasurer. There were present at this meeting, Messrs. W. H. Bunker, J. P. Sutton, H. A. Blake, J. N. Perry, Rev. J. L. Maile, S. Widrig, John Long, Charles Frane, Thomas Clark, H. M. Airth, M. Buck, J. G. Spiller, C. A. Brace, J. J. Barker, Mrs. and Miss Gary.

Meetings were held from time to time until July 27, 1872, at which time the Congregational Church of Christ in Cheboygan was organized. Articles of association were adopted Sept. 6, following. The following named persons were the first members of the church: William H. Bunker and wife, Charles S. Ramsay and wife, J. G. Spiller and wife, Mrs. Sophronia Mattone, Simon Widrig and wife, Mrs. Jane A. Campbell, Mrs. Margaret McDonald, Mrs. Catharine Gary, Mrs. Julia Hamel, Miss Hattie Penman.

The articles of association were signed by the following named persons: C. S. Ramsay, J. G. Spiller, W. H. Bunker, Simon Widrig, Charles Page, Margaret Page, Mrs. Catharine Gary, Miss Harriet Penman, Mrs. Jane A. Campbell, George W. Bell, H. A. Blake, Mrs. Jane Clark, Mrs. Margaret A. McDonald, J. L. Maile, Jasper J. Barker.

The society was invited to occupy the Methodist Church and did so.

Nov. 8, 1874, a new church building was dedicated. It is a frame structure 36x60 feet, having a seating capacity of 350.

In the spring of 1876 Rev. J. L. Maile was succeeded by Rev. R. M. Thompson. In the fall of 1879 Rev. Thompson was succeeded by Rev. J. H. Parker, who remained but a short time, and in the spring of 1880, by Rev. C. A. Marsh, and he by Rev. A. H. Lowery. In September, 1882, Rev. Charles Hartley entered upon the pastorate and continued that relation until the winter of 1884, when he resigned.

St. James Episcopal Church

In the year 1878 the Rev. W. W. Rafter was appointed missionary to Cheboygan, and services were held in the town hall until the summer of 1880; during this time the church prospered, and in the spring of 1880 the members and friends determined to erect a place of worship, and with that object in view went to work in earnest, and in the month of September the building being completed, but not furnished, it was duly consecrated by the Rev. Dr. Harris, bishop of the diocese.

In October of the same year the church was duly organized under the laws of the state, and the first vestry chosen, viz.: William McArthur, Samuel S. Eddy, William Crane, William E. Smyth, William Scott, Frank Shepherd, Ephraim Smith and Samuel H. Taylor, who at their first meeting elected William Crane, senior warden; Samuel S. Eddy, junior warden; Frank Shepherd, treasurer, and Samuel H. Taylor, secretary.

The church being organized, and no longer a mission station, the Rev. W. W. Rafter left the mission and the Rev. L. C. Rogers was chosen rector of the parish, and continued so until the Easter of 1882. The rectorship was then vacant until September, 1882, when the late Rev. J. H. Magoffin was chosen rector.

The seating capacity of the church is about 160, and it is considered one of the neatest in the diocese, situated on South Huron Street, in a pleasant part of the village, and was erected at a cost of about $1,400.

Soon after its completion it was neatly and tastefully furnished by the ladies, and heating apparatus (hot air furnace) put in.

The church being thus completed, in the summer of 1882 it was decided to build a rectory, and again the members and their friends went to work, but did not succeed in making a commencement until the fall of the year. It is now being pushed forward to completion and is expected to be ready for occupancy by June 1st. The estimated cost is between $1,600 and $1,700, all of which is now subscribed, with the exception of about $250.

In connection with the rectory, and for the use of friends living at a distance, there is a good barn erected at a cost of $375.

The church lot was the gift of the late George W. Cuyler, Esq., of Palmyra, N. Y., a former member of the firm of McArthur, Smith & Co., of this place.

A sad event in the history of the society was the death of Rev. J. H. Magoffin, which occurred in November, 1883. He was a gentleman greatly beloved in the community, and his usefulness in the church was of a high degree.

The church now is in a flourishing condition, and at the present time is in good financial standing, being entirely out of debt and owning a property valued at $6,000. The present rector is Rev. J. M. Curtis.

First Baptist Church

The First Baptist Church of Cheboygan was organized Aug. 1, 1880, with fourteen members. One month later an ecclesiastical council, composed of Rev. E. L. Little, of Alpena, Rev. S. Graves, D. D., of Grand Rapids, Rev. E. R. Bennett, of Jonesville, and Rev. Myers, of Battle Creek, met in Cheboygan and organized the church as a regular Baptist Church. The church adopted the New Hampshire Declaration of Faith, and at once entered upon a prosperous and useful career. For nearly three years this church has been a beneficent moral force in the community. The church is indebted for its organization and present prosperity to the abundant blessing of God upon the earnest and devoted labors of the late Rev. H. A. Conrad, who was pastor of the church from its organization until his death, which occurred Jan. 21, 1883. Under the leadership of this good man, the spiritual and temporal prosperity of the church was very marked. The membership increased from fourteen to forty. The place of worship was changed from a hall to the comfortable chapel now occupied and owned by the church. In Mr. Conrad's death the church was greatly bereaved, but by no means disheartened. As soon as practicable they made arrangements to secure another pastor. Willis G. Clark, recently from the Baptist Seminary at Louisville, Ky., was called to succeed Mr. Conrad. Mr. Clark has been with the church since April 1, 1883.

Lutheran Church

St. Thomas Lutheran Church of Cheboygan dates from the fall of 1881, when meetings were first held by Rev. S. Otto, who is still pastor of the society. The society started out with fourteen members, and services were held in the Baptist Church about a year. A small building was then used while the society was erecting a church building. Their building was dedicated in May, 1883, and cost about $600. There are at present fifteen members.


A religious society under the name of the Independent Church has for some time held services at the opera house. Rev. R. M. Thompson was pastor until the spring of 1881, and the society, though not incorporated, had a large membership, and has been in a flourishing condition.

Secret Orders


During the spring of 1870 the Masonic brotherhood of Cheboygan, then consisting of thirteen persons, undertook the organization of a Masonic lodge, presented a petition therefor to the proper authority, and on the 4th of June of that year a dispensation was granted to William H. Bunker, John McKay, Jasper J. Barker, Ward B. McArthur, George W. Bell, William H. Flanigan, I. Smith Bockes, William Devine, James N. Riley, Henry A. Blake, William Downing, Richard Downs and E. G. Sovereign, and appointing William H. Bunker, W. M., John McKay, S. W., and Jasper J. Barker, J. W. A meeting was held Aug. 6, and the organization perfected by the election of William H. Flanigan, S. D., William Devine, J. D.; George Bell, secretary; Ward B. McArthur, treasurer, and J. N. Riley, tyler.

The first regular communication was held Aug. 10, 1870, and work regularly commenced. A charter was granted them Jan. 12, 1871, by the Grand Lodge of the state of Michigan, then in session in Detroit, designating the organization as Cheboygan Lodge, No. 283, F. & A. M. At the first regular communication of the lodge under its charter, held Feb. 1, 1871, officers were elected as follows: William B. Bunker, W, M.; William H. Flanigan, S. W., Watts S. Humphrey, J. W.; E. Nelson, S. D.; William Devine, J. D.; George W. Bell, secretary; W. B. McArthur, treasurer; Charles F. Southom, tyler.

From the first organization of the lodge until Dec. 25, 1881, its meetings were held over Post & Van Arsdale's old hardware store, since which time they have been held in the third story of the Bennett Block, where the fraternity have spacious and convenient halls, parlors and waiting-rooms, and which were furnished during the past year at an expense of between $900 and $1,000.

W. H. Bunker was master of the lodge from its first organization until December, 1872; E. Nelson, from December, 1872, to June, 1874; George W. Bell, from June, 1874, to December, 1882; G. G. Wharton, from December, 1882, to December, 1883. The secretaries have been as follows: George W. Bell, from organization to December, 1871; A. M. Gerow, from December, 1871, to December, 1872; J. J. Barker, from December, 1872, to June, 1874; J. P. Sutton, from June, 1874, to December, 1879; J. C. Wooster, from December, 1879, to December, 1881; J. P. Sutton, from December, 1881, to the present time.

The lodge has had a total membership of 119. Officers in 1884: George G. Wharton, W. M.; E. O. Penny, S. W.; Joseph Cochran, J. W.; J. P. Sutton, secretary; J. B. McArthur, treasurer: C. W. Fair, S. D.; W. E. Perrin, J. D.

Cheboygan Chapter, No. 109, of R. A. M., held its first meeting Dec. 2, 1882. Names of charter members: F. E. Martin, A. J. Paddock, J. P. Sutton, J. C. Wooster, W. H. Bunker, H. Graves, M. A. McHenry, A. P. McKinnon, A. R. Thayer, R. Robinson, G. P. Humphrey, J. G. Spiller.

Sixteen members added since organization, making now a total of thirty members.

The chapter meets in the hall of Cheboygan Lodge 283 on the Friday on and after the full moon of each month, that being the regular meeting. Special meetings are held at the order of the High Priest.

Officers elected in January, 1883, are as follows: H. P., A. J. Paddock; king, J. P. Sutton; scribe, F. E. Martin; cap. host, H. G. Graves; P. S., A. R. Thayer; R. A. C., M. A. McHenry; G. M. 3d vail, J. G. Spiller; G. M. 2d vail, A. P. McKinnon; G. M. 1st vail, R. Robinson; secretary, J. C. Wooster; treasurer, George P. Humphrey.

Odd Fellows

Temple Lodge, No. 331, I.O.O.F., was instituted Oct. 3, 1879, by Grand Herald W. W. Wilson, of Alpena, acting as special deputy grand master. The first officers were as follows: N. G., F. J. Breslin; V. G., J. Homer Parker; Sec, William Saulson; P. S., Thomas Crow; Treas., W. H. Scott. The charter members were as follows: Frank J. Biestlin, William Saulson, Henry Bamen, Thomas Crow, S. Widsig, John A. Bartram, W. H. Scott, J. H. Parker, and Reuben H. Mosher. The lodge first met in the Masonic hall over Post & Van Arsdale's old store, and subsequently rented a hall and fitted it up for their own use. In December, 1888, they moved into a new hall, fitted up expressly for their use, in the Backus Block. The hall is elegantly furnished and well adapted to the uses for which it is designed. The lodge is in a prosperous condition, and has a large membership. The principal officers in 1884 are as follows: N. G., Frank Shepherd; V. G., J. H. Tuttle; Sec, A. G. Boggs; P. S., J. C. Wooster; Treas., I. E. DeGowin.

United Workmen

Benton Lodge, No. 108, A. O. U. W., was organized Aug. 31, 1881, by Deputy Grand Master Dunton. The charter members were as follows: H. J. Miner, C. J. Kitchen, W. G. Boggs, I. S. Cooper, J. H. Welch, Geo. G. Wharton, B. H. Begole, John L. Jewel, W. E. Perrin, B. J. Vanderbilt, E. O. Penny, C. A. Perrin, T. A. Perrin, C. S. Ramsay, J. M. Wilcox, J. H. Tuttle, J. F. Ford, F. M. Sammons, P. M. Lathrop, J. E. Clarke, N. W. Lyons, Geo N. Case. The following were the first officers: P. M. W., Charles J. Kitchen; M. W., John F. Ford; foreman, H J. Miner; overseer, W. G. Boggs; recorder, B. H. Begole; receiver, W. E. Perrin; financier, Geo. G. Wharton; guide, I. S. Cooper; inside watchman, B. J. Vanderbilt; outside watchman, John L. Jewel.

Officers in 1883: M. W., H. J. Miner; foreman, C. S. Ramsay; overseer, J. H. Tuttle; recorder, B. H. Begole; receiver, W. H. Boggs; financier, E. O. Penny; guide, N. W. Lyons; inside watch, M. W. Smith; outside watch, J. E. Clark.

Officers in 1884: Master workman, C. S. Ramsay; foreman, J. H. Tuttle; overseer, F. Shepherd; recorder, George Case; financier, E. O. Penny; receiver, George Case; guide, W. W. Smith; inside watch, Alex Gerow; outside watch, George G. Wharton.

The present membership of the lodge is about sixty.

Grand Army Post

Ruddock Post, No. 224, G. A. R., was mustered in February, 1883, with the following charter members: T R. Clark, William Harrington, Jacob Wilson, C. Kriedman, C. Kriedman, Jr., H. A. Blake, W. H. Crawford, Jacob Post, W. S. Humphrey, Geo. P. Humphrey, H. W. Hodges, N. Vanlin, Fred Siegel, C. S. Ramsay, Paul Fasseft, Robert Braham, J. P. Sutton, E. Francis, J. Myers, Marlin Horan, John Vincent, Benjamin Vincent. There are in 1884 about thirty-five members, and this number will probably be soon largely increased. The principal officers are as follows: Commander, H A. Blake: S. V. C., Geo. P. Humphrey; J. V. C., J. Myers; O. G., J. R. Clark; O. D., J. P. Sutton; quartermaster, C. Kriedman, Sen.; Adjt., Charles Geyer; chaplain, W. H. Crawford.

Village Schools

The first school-house in Cheboygan was built in 1848, and stood on what is now the northeast corner of Main and Pine Streets. The first school numbered twelve pupils and was taught by Miss Harriet McLeod.

In 1851 the school building was removed to the present corner of Main and Division Streets, and subsequently to the corner of Main nnd Pine Streets, where it is now doing humble duty as an appendage to the Grand Central Hotel.

For a good many years the school had no very permanent abiding place, and occupied several buildings, some of which are still standing, while others have been remodeled. The first teachers were female and were obliged to prosecute their labors under many disadvantages. The school, however, kept pace with the general progress of the place, and when in 1869 a new era of prosperity set in, steps were taken for creating and organizing a graded school in the district. The necessary two-thirds vote of the electors present being obtained, the next step was the election of a board of six trustees instead of three, which resulted in the election of the following persons: Philip Bries, David Smith, M. W. Horne, Francis Sammons, Daniel Wheelock, and John Barber.

The necessity of providing suitable building accommodations for the district next received attention. It was voted to erect a building to cost not less than $10,000. The proposed building was an enterprise of large magnitude for the village, then in its infancy, and various meetings were held, at which plans were discussed before any real progress was made. Finally bonds were issued, the money raised, and the present union school-house was completed. It is constructed of brick; dimensions, 48x66; cost, $10,000; location, Pine Street, west of Huron Street. The first corps of teachers therein were as follows: Principal, Prof. O. B. Weed; intermediate department, Miss M. Morey; primary department, Mrs. Borredell Buck.

The first school board were Messrs. J. P. Sutton, J. Long, A. M. Gerow, J. W. Linderman, H. A. Blake and F. M. Sammons.

The first session held there was in August, 1873.

In 1866 the average daily attendance for the district was thirty-one. Amount received from the primary school fund, $47.20.

In 1875, average daily attendance forty-six. Amount received from the primary school fund, $68.16. In 1883 the total enrollment was 416. Amount received from the primary school fund, $915.34.

The early teachers and principals have been as follows: W. C. Flagg, Thomas Halloway, Abbie N. Ward, M. E. Marshall, Sarah Horne, Geo. Robinson, Ellen M. Burt, M. J. Shea, Emma C. Sammons, Mina Linderman, Mary E. Reed, D. R. Joslin, Abbie Bockes, W.J. Woolsey, O. B. Weed, Albert Sayler, G. J. Steadman, E F. Grant, O. B. Weed, E. D. Sutherland.

Prof. E. D. Sutherland, principal of the schools since the fall of 1881, was born in Scotland, and came to America with his parents in 1856. He received his literary education at the Normal school in Toronto, Canada. He devoted three and one-half years to the study of medicine, at the Toronto School of Medicine. For several years he had charge of a model school, devoted to the training of teachers, in Canada, and from 1878 to 1881 had charge of the high school at Sterling. From there came to Cheboygan to enter upon the duties of principal of the schools here. He has continued the study of medicine, and at the close of the school year in 1884 will devote a year to medical lectures and hospital practice, at the end of which it is his intention to enter practice at Cheboygan. Prof. Sutherland is a gentleman of high culture and a very successful teacher. His labors in the schools at Cheboygan have been eminently successful and satisfactory.

Cheboygan Newspapers

The first newspaper published in the county was the Manitawaba Chronicle, published weekly, in Cheboygan, in 1871, by Dr. W. P. Maiden. Mr. Thomas Bently was the printer. It was a sheet 12x18 inches. There were issued only twelve numbers, when it ceased. Dr. Maiden is now a practicing physician at Alpena.

The Cheboygan Free Press was started in January, 1876, by Thomas Bently and James J. Brown, the latter being editor. It was Democratic in politics. Its publication was discontinued after a time and the material sold.

The only two newspapers now published in the county are the Northern Tribune and Cheboygan Democrat, both first-class local newspapers, conducted with more than average ability and both liberally sustained.

The Northern Tribune was started by William Chandler, in July, 1875. The office was first located on Third Street, and was moved from there to the corner of Division and Main Streets, and still later to its present location on Main Street. In January, 1882, C. S. Ramsay and C. J. Hunt purchased interests in the office, and became actively identified with the paper, Mr. Ramsay as editor, and Mr. Hunt in the mechanical department. In the summer of 1882 Merritt Chandler became interested in the business. In the spring of 1883 the Tribune Company was organized. Rev. R. M. Thompson, who had become a stockholder, succeeded Mr. Ramsay as editor, Mr. Hunt remaining at the head of the mechanical department. The Tribune has been a growing institution, both in its business and editorial management. It is now a five column quarto in its regular form and size while frequent supplements largely increase its reading and advertising space during the year. It is Republican in politics and has an excellent reputation among the papers of the state.

The Cheboygan Democrat was first issued February 12, 1880, by Forsyth & Bunnell. At the end of six months Edward Forsyth purchased Mr. Bunnell's interest and has been editor and proprietor of the paper since that time. The paper is Democratic in politics and has advanced from a very small beginning to an important position both as to its journalistic rank and its business. At the beginning its entire outfit did not exceed one thousand dollars in value, and in 1881 the office is equipped with all the printing facilities of a first-class office. In the fall of 1888 Mr. Forsyth erected a building in which the Democrat is now located. The paper when first issued was 24x30 inches in size. It has been several times enlarged being now a nine column folio, and its space largely increased by the issue of extra pages. It is soon to be again enlarged to furnish the additional space required by its advertising patronage. Mr. Forsyth is a son of a prominent hardware merchant in Bay City, and began learning the printer's trade in an office at Flint, in 1870. He has steadily followed the business since that time, and for a time was engaged with Mr. McMillan, now editor of the Bay City Tribune in the publication of the Bay City Observer. In 1880 he came to Cheboygan and started the Democrat as above stated.

Duncan City

It has already been stated in connection with the early movements at what is now Cheboygan village that Messrs. A. & R. McLeod built docks on Duncan Bay about the year 1850. They were succeeded by J. W. Duncan & Co. In 1853 Mr. Duncan completed a mill at Duncan Bay and planned extensive operations, but the following year he died and after a year or two the estate went into the courts and business operations ceased.

In 1865 the property was purchased by the firm of McArthur, Southwick & Co. In the fall of 18G6 they sold the Duncan property, including about 1,200 acres of land and some village property, to Messrs. Sanford Baker, Archibald Thompson, and Robert Patterson, who took hold of the business under the firm name of Baker, Thompson & Co. This was really the beginning of Duncan City as a business point. For ten years or more the property had lain idle, and the buildings were little more than wrecks. The new firm immediately put the property in condition to be operated. In 1868 Messrs. Thompson and Patterson sold their interests to Mears & Co., of Chicago, and the firm was changed to Baker, Mears & Co. In 1870 Thompson Smith, of Toronto, Canada, purchased the interest owned by Mears & Co., and two years later Messrs. Baker and Smith divided the property, Mr. Smith retaining the Duncan property, and Mr. Baker taking other property. Mr. Smith was born in the city of Toronto in the year 1808. His father was a native of the state of New York and a soldier in the Revolutionary war. In 1837 Mr. Smith engaged in lumbering and has continued in that business to the present time. He is a man of original business methods and in the management of his vast business operations permits no departure from his business rules. Duncan City contains two saw-mills, several dockt, a large store and about one hundred buildings, all the property of this firm. There are shops for manufacturing nearly everything needed in the manufacture of lumber; a foundry and machine shop, harness, wagon, and blacksmith shops, and facilities for doing various other kinds of work. Mr. Smith has expended upwards of half a million of dollars at this point. About five hundred men are employed and an average of twenty six million feet of lumber annually manufactured. The firm also own two tugs and one vessel. Mr. Smith's will is the law of the village. He will not allow the sale of any kind of liquor within the limits of his domain. The buildings are owned by him and rented to tenants, so that he controls the entire property. Attempts have frequently been made to get a foothold in the place for the sale of liquor but it can never be done while Mr. Smith lives. He is assisted in the management of the business by two sons, Ephraim and Egbert A. The former came here in 1879 and the latter in August, 1883. Both have built handsome residences on the Bay shore. The village was platted but the plat has never been recorded. Duncan City was a pioneer point. The county seat, custom house, land office and post-office were first located here, and subsequently removed. It is less than two miles distant from Cheboygan village, and is in reality a suburb of that place.

Village of Mackinaw City

Location—Original Proprietors—Early History of the Projected Village—Years of Waiting—The Beginning in 1870—Early Religious Worship—The School—Incorporated as a Village Under a Charter—General Progress.

The village of Mackinaw City stands upon historic ground, and the events which gave this point a conspicuous place in history have been narrated upon preceding pages.

The village as a reality is of recent growth, but as a projected enterprise dates back to the early years of progress in northern Michigan.

In the year 1857 Edgar Conkling and Asbury M. Searles, as trustees of the proprietors of Mackinaw lands, inaugurated a movement for building up a business center upon the south shore of the Straits. The principal office was at Cincinnati, Ohio, and the names of the owners and amount of their individual interests are as follows:

Edgar Conkling, Cincinnati, O., owner of 9-16
Asbury M. Searles, Cincinnati, O., owner of 1-8
S. H. Burton, Trustee for Mrs. Jane M. Messick, Cincinnati, O., 1-8
James C. Conkling, Springfield, Ill., owner of 1-8
John Reeves, Cincinnati, O., owner of 1-16
Total, 8-8

Mr. Conkling was the largest owner and the leading spirit in the enterprise. His enthusiasm and confidence in the project were unbounded, and certainly no more captivating scheme was ever spread upon paper than that which contemplated the building of an important business center at this point. During the summer of 1857 ground was surveyed and platted for a village by R. C. Phillips, a civil engineer, and in October of that year a pamphlet of about fifty pages was issued by the trustees. This pamphlet contained a mass of information relative to this point, together with plats and maps, and a large edition was printed and circulated. An early writer had uttered the following prophetic opinion: "If one were to point out on the map of North America a site for a great central city in the lake region, it would be in the immediate vicinity of the Straits of Mackinaw. A city so located would have the control of the mineral trade, the fisheries, the furs and the lumber of the entire north. It might become the metropolis of a great commercial empire. It would be the Venice of the Lakes."

The projectors of Mackinaw City believed they were founding such a metropolis.

The pamphlet referred to contained an announcement of the trustees to the public, and also the report of the surveyor, Mr. Phillips. We give them herewith, as they define the enterprise as it was outlined at that time.

To The Public

The undersigned, trustees and proprietors of the lands of, and adjacent to "Mackinaw City," have the pleasure of presenting for the consideration of the capitalists, business men and others, what they will concede to be, upon investigation, the most reliable point for investment and settlement, now available in the west or north.

Mackinaw evidently occupies the most commanding natural position for a city of the first claas; surrounded as it is, by a widely extended territory, abounding in elements of the greatest wealth, affording the utmost encouragement to the manufacturer and mechanic in their widest diversity of employment, and without the possibility of a competing city in any direction nearer than Detroit on the south.

They feel, from what has been so truly and ably said by E. D. Mansfield, Esq., a gentleman well and favorably known for his ability and habits of close investigation and comparison, that nothing more is left to be said, but to set forth the policy which they have adopted, and design to carry out, the more efficiently to promote the interests of this location, and at the same time to aid in the development of the vast resources of the surrounding region.

From the map it will be seen that the streets are laid out eighty feet in width, and the avenues one hundred, and one hundred and fifty feet, respectively. In the deed of dedication of these to the public, provision is made for sidewalks, fifteen feet width on each side, to be forever unobstructed by improvements of any kind, shade trees excepted, thus securing a spacious promenade, worthy of a place destined to become a principal resort for pleasure and health. Provision is also made for the proper use of the streets and avenues by railroad companies, adequate to the demands of the business of the city.

The lots, with the exception of those in fractional blocks, are fifty by one hundred and fifty feet, thus affording ample room for permanent, convenient, and ornamental improvements.

The park now laid off embraces the grounds of the old "Fort Michilimackinac," sacred in the history of the country. These grounds, now in their natural condition, are unequaled for beauty of surface, location, scenery, soil, trees, etc., by any park in any city in this country; and when the skillful hand of the horticulturist has marked its outline and threaded it with avenues and foot paths, pruned its trees and carpeted its surface with green, it will present the very perfection of all that constitutes a park delightful. The character of the soil (it being a sandy loam, with sand and gravel underlying it) renders it capable of the easiest and most economical improvement, securing walks always dry, hard and smooth.

This park, writh suitable blocks and lots for county and city buildings, market houses, schools, etc., will be duly appropriated to these uses, whenever the proper authorities are prepared to select suitable sites; and lots for churches and institutions of learning and charity will be freely donated to parties contemplating early improvement. Thus the trustees propose to anticipate, by avoiding the errors of older cities, the wants of Mackinaw City in perpetuity, and free forever its citizens from taxation for any grounds required for the public good. They also design to place it in the power of the general government to secure, by like donation, at an early day, the grounds necessary for such fortifications as the wants of the country and commerce may require, on the simple condition of speedy improvement. This liberal policy, it is believed, will best promote the true interests of the city and country, and at the same time be productive of the greatest pecuniary profit, both to the original proprietors, and to all others who may make investments at this point.

It is also within the purposes of the trustees, to expend a large portion of their income from sales, in providing for the public wants, by the erection of docks at the most important places, and by the establishment of ferries, in view of which they have secured the land on the opposite side of the Straits. And they will also, as their means will justify, make loans to aid parties in the establishment of manufactories, &c.

Building materials of great variety and in abundance are at hand. Lumber can be had for the mere cost of preparation, and the soil at no very distant point is suitable for making bricks; while for immediate use, Milwaukee can furnish the articles of the best kind in any quantities. The shores of Lake Superior abound with exhaustless quantities of granite, sand stone and marble; and limestone and sand are on the spot.

There are three harbors, the most eastern of which is well known to navigators, as affording perfectly safe anchorage at all times; and when suitable docks are built, they will offer unusual advantages to commerce.

The surface of the city itself is unrivaled, having a natural grade suited to city wants, and the soil being a sandy loam with sand and gravel underlying it, will form the cheapest and best foundation for streets and avenues.

Evergreen and other trees of full growth now cover the grounds, affording a healthful and delightful shade, and capable of varied embellishment, without the delay incident to artificial growth. The grounds adjacent to the city are of the same character, gradually ascending until an elevation of seventy-five or a hundred feet is attained, affording the finest views of the lakes and neighboring islands.

The following are the terms on which the trustees propose to sell the property which they have subdivided into lots, as represented in the subjoined plat of the city. Notwithstanding the superior facilities of this point over hundreds of others in the West, where lots have readily been disposed at ten, twenty, thirty, and even fifty dollars per foot, the trustees, in order to give impetus to the growth of Mackinaw City, and to afford a margin for others to profit by, propose to all settlers who will immediately improve the property by the erection of mills, hotels, dwellings, manufacturing and printing establishments, docks, &c. &c, to donate the lots necessary for such purposes, subject to the choice of the parties themselves; and to those who desire to profit by the inevitable advance of property contiguous to their own improvements, the trustees will sell lots on long time, if desired, at the unprecedentedly low price of five dollars per foot, front.

Capitalists and non-residents, desiring to avail themselves of the advantages of such a developing policy, and to invest upon a real estate basis, promising a rapid appreciation in value, can possess themselves for a very limited time, of lots, at the same low price of five dollars per foot.

The title to this property is unquestionable, having, within five years, been derived directly from the United States Government, as will be seen by reference to a title pamphlet issued by the undersigned for the information of parties interested.

Applications by letter will receive prompt attention. Asking a careful perusal of the annexed report on the subject, from the pen of E. D. Mansfield, Esq., we submit the matter to public investigation.

Edgar Conkling,)
A. M. Searles,     ) Trustees.

Cincinnati, Oct., 1857.
Messrs. E. Conkling, and A. M. Searles,
Trustees of Mackinaw City Company,
Gents:—Having completed my surveys of "Mackinaw City" and the surrounding lands belonging to your company, at your request I herein embody briefly the result of my observations. "Mackinaw City," situated on the south side of the Straits, and upon the northern extremity of the southern peninsula of Michigan, occupies a position at once admirably adapted to the conveniences and necessities of a great city, and susceptible of easy and commensurate improvement. The land rises gradually from the water's edge, until it attains an elevation of about forty-four feet, just sufficient to secure certain drainage from every point, with very little expense in the grading of streets, while there is no portion of it subject to overflow of water.

By reference to the accompanying map of the city, its topographical features will be indicated by the figures at the corner of blocks, which figures denote their elevation in feet, respectively, above the level of the lake. The lands west of the city plat continue to rise until a height of seventy-five feet (75) feet above the lake is attained. Fiom almost all parts of these lands commanding views are obtained of the surrounding lakes, the Straits and the numerous adjacent islands. That portion set apart as a park is covered with a beautiful growth of various evergreen and other trees, which only require the skillful hand of the horticulturist to render the place beautiful beyond description. The prospect from this site is particularly fine, and hardly to be equaled by that of any public park in the country, not excepting the far-famed Battery in New York, which is similarly situated. Looking westward, Lake Michigan is spread out in the distance, with the island of St. Helena in the northwest. Immediately north appear the Straits, and beyond, their northern shore, while Mackinaw, Round and Bois Blanc Islands dot the waters to the northeast and east, and the south channel of Lake Huron stretches away as far as the eye can reach, forming together a scene of unsurpassed natural and varied beauty.

The soil of the city site is a sandy loam, sand and gravel, mixed with fragmentary limestone, underlying it, forming a perfectly dry and clean surface, admirably adapted for streets of a compact and reliable foundation, without the expense of paving.

The health of this locality, like that of the surrounding islands, is proverbial. The invigorating and pleasant breezes which prevail here have been the theme of the inhabitants, and of the thousands of visitors who annually flock here for health and pleasure. This testimony is confirmed by the fact that doctors find no encouragement in this whole region and are regarded as mere myths.

Ample and safe harbors are found adjoining your lands on the east, north and west. A reference to the city plat, and the United States charts of the Straits, will show you the depth of water at a great number of points—a depth sufficient for any vessels that navigate the lakes. The eastern bay is well known to navigators as affording excellent anchorage and a safe retreat in time of storms. I have seen more than twenty vessels at anchor here at one time while a storm was prevailing. The northern and western bays are scarcely inferior, and, altogether, cannot fail to render " Mackinaw City" a place of favorite resort and secure retreat by the hundreds of steamers and sail vessels which are constantly traversing the Straits of Mackinaw.

Limestone for building purposes is abundant in your high lands, which, with the timber covering the same, furnish ample facilities for ready and substantial improvements.

I have also made surveys south of Mackinaw and in the vicinity of Little Traverse Bay, on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, and have, therefore, had a good opportunity to see the country and to judge of its capabilities to promote the growth and prosperity of a city. I find the surface to be slightly rolling, or undulating, having an elevation above the lake of from seventy to one hundred and fifty feet. At a distance of half a mile to one and a half miles from the coast, the land is of an excellent quality generally, and improves uniformly as you go inland, as far as I have explored it. The timber consists mainly of sugar maple, wild cherry (red), beech, poplar, ash, oak, white cedar, Norway and other pines. The soil is a deep sandy loam, very warm, and producing luxuriantly.

Upon the whole, I can not but congratulate your company on the site you have been so fortunate as to possess for a prospective city, affording, as it does, almost unexampled facilities for settlement and improvements, while at the same time its commercial advantages, being at the center of an immense agricultural and mineral district, with many other minor pursuits inviting to human industry, give ample promise that in the onward development of the mighty northwest, it must become a great central metropolis.

The lakes being near one and a half feethigher than usual, will, of course, on receding, increase the depth of your water lots, my survey showing the present water line. Your lands on the opposite point of the Straits, and embracing the whole shore, I also surveyed and find similar in character to the south side, and well suited for the termini of railroads and ferry, the main channel of the Straits being near the south shore.

Yours truly,
R. C. Phillips, Civil Engineer.
Cincinnati, Sept. 30, 1857.

After vigorous but unsuccessful efforts to found a city, Mr. Conkling became convinced that the project was matured at too early a time. The time had not arrived for extending railway lines to this point, and without railway connection a business center of any importance is impossible. Mr. Conkling, however, never lost faith in the ultimate success of his enterprise, and after waiting and watching nearly a quarter of a century died in December, 1881, a few days before the first railroad to this point was opened.

From 1857 to 1870 the village plat was undisturbed. In 1869 Mr. Conkling made arrangements to build a dock, and the contract was let to Mr. F. M. Sammons, of Cheboygan. In January, 1870, George W. Stimpson moved here from Cheboygan, having a contract to get out dock timber and 20,000 cedar posts. A small log house built for use of men working on the dock was the sole and solitary tenant of the site. Mr. Stimpson built a log house where the Stimpson House now stands, and became the first settler of the village.

George W. Stimpson was born in Somerset County, Me., in the year 1829. He was married April 5, 1849, to Miss Elvira A. Pillsbury, at Palmyra, in that state. Mr. Stimpson was a farmer, and in 1868, having several sons, decided it would be best to move into a new country where land was cheap. He accordingly removed with his family to Cheboygan, and kept the Cheboygan House about a year. While there he watched opportunities for securing desirable tracts of land and made several purchases. In January, 1870, he came to Mackinaw City, as heretofore stated, and engaged in getting out timber and posts. He also handled a lot of cord-wood for Mr. Conkling, and engaged in the wood trade on his own account. His house being the only one at this point, it became the stopping place for people who came here. The first religious services in the place were held in that house, and the first Sunday-school organized there. Mr. Stimpson was constantly on the alert for desirable land, and whenever there was an opportunity to secure a valuable water front or good farming land he purchased. The consequence is that he has become possessed of a large amount of valuable laud in the vicinity. For several years he has carried on fishing quite extensively, and for this business his water frontage is invaluable. Mr. and Mrs. Stimpson have six children, four sons and two daughters. Charles and Forest J. have farms near Mackinaw City; George Stimpson is a veterinary surgeon at Quincy, Ill., and although a young man, has become distinguished for skill and remarkable success in his profession. He graduated with honors from the Ontario Veterinary College, at Toronto, Canada, in 1882, and located at Quincy, Ill., where he has already acquired an extensive practice. He is strongly endorsed by Wilkes Spirit of the Times, and is already in the front rank of his profession. John and Ida are at home, and Lydia is the wife of B. C. Milliken, of Cheboygan. Mr. Stimpson has engaged in various business enterprises, and has continued to keep hotel to the present time. In 1880 he built the present Stimpson House, a large and conveniently arranged frame building. He has accumulated some valuable and interesting relics from the old fort, among which is a set of charms consisting of a key and two charms, made of silver. Upon the ring is the date 1563 and the letter "M," upon the charms are engraved emblems, such as the heart and horn of plenty. He has also a silver cross, broad-axe, tomahawk, and a great quantity of beads. These were all found within a few years by parties digging in the soil in the vicinity of the old fort.

While the dock was being built the men engaged upon that work helped to relieve the place of its solitude, but that was soon finished.

L. I. Willets was the next person to become a permanent resident of the place. He came here in April, 1870, and purchased a lot. During the summer he had a store building put up, and in September lemoved here and brought his stock of goods. Mr. Willets was born in Orleans County, N. Y., but removed to Branch County, Mich., with his parents when quite young. In 1863 he was married at Coldwater, Mich., to Miss Elizabeth Fetterly. They have no children. Mr. Willets lived two years in Illinois, and then removed to Greenville, Mich., where he followed the business of painting until his removal to Mackinaw City in 1870.

July 1, 1871, the postoffice of Mackinaw City was established with Mr. Willets as postmaster, and he has continued to hold the office to the present time. He has carried on his mercantile business, and has taken an active interest in promoting the welfare of the place. He is a man of good education, and has been a leading spirit in educational matters, and taught the school in 1873 and 1874. He is superintendent of schools at the present time.

With the building of the dock and the business interests of Messrs. Stimpson and Willets, a beginning was made, but beyond that nothing was done for several years, and it still continued to look as though the greatest fame of this point would come from the past.

Religious Work

Religious worship was introduced into the village of Mackinaw City as soon as the first home was established. In February, 1870, Elder Riley, of the M. E. Church at Cheboygan, came to the place and preached in the log house of George W. Stimpson that had been recently finished. There were a number of men at work upon the dock, and every person in the vicinity attended the services, filling the house to its utmost capacity. Shortly afterward Rev. Van Fleet came over from Mackinac Island, and preached in the old dock-house. In March Rev. Father De Ceunick came up from Cheboygan and held services in the old boarding-house. After the work on the dock was finished, and the laborers went away, there were but few persons left at this point, and there was no preaching service held again until the summer of 1881, when the Presbyterians sent Rev. Cook from Harbor Springs once a month. He held services at the Stimpson House, and a Sunday-school was organized with Dr. Henry Conkling, superintendent. Soon after a church society was organized. The first local pastor was Rev. Peoples, and the present one is Rev. Marsh. Dr. Henry Conkling and his wife took an active interest in the welfare of the church, and in 1883 the society succeeded in building a house of worship. It was dedicated free from debt Sept. 26, 1883. This is the only religious organization in the village.

District School

In the summer of 1871 application was made to the board of school inspectors of the town of Inverness for the organization of a school district. The application was signed by the following named persons: G. W. Stimpson, Charles Stimpson, James Nickelson, Wilham Wright, G. W. Conrad, L. I. Willets, Octave Terrian, Lewis St. Andrew, Francis Dufney, John Kadott. July 8, 1871, School District No. 1 was organized, and the first meeting of the voters of the district was held at the house of George W. Stimpson, July 29, of the same year. Wilham Wright was elected moderator; George W. Stimpson director, and George W. Conrad assessor. A school was kept during the following autumn in a log building that had been built by Mr. Conkling. The school was taught by Lydia J., daughter of George W. Stimpson, and there were seven pupils. George W. Conrad taught in 1872, and L. I. Willets in 1873 and 1874; Luella Smith taught in 1875 and 1876; Millie Wilson, 1877; Fred Bunker, 1878, and Mary Miner part of a term in 1878; Ella Eastman, 1879; Luella Smith, 1880. There was no school kept during the year 1881, and in 1882 the school was taught by Jessie Lomax; Miss Clark in 1883 and 1884. The school was kept in temporary buildings until the fall of 1883, when a school-house was completed.

In December, 1881, the Mackinaw division of the Michigan Central Railroad was completed to Mackinaw City, and railway communication with the outside world was established. In July, 1882, the (^rand Rapids & Indiana Railroad had completed its line from Petoskey to this point, and the future prospects of the place assumed a more hopeful hue. In 1882 it was thought advisable to organize under a village charter and push forward local improvements.

Village Charter

At a meeting of the board of supeivisors held in December, 1882, application was made for an order incorporating the hereinafter described teiritory into a village, to be known as Mackinaw City, to-wit: Lots one (1) and two (2) of fractional Section seven (7) and Lots one (1) and two (2) of Section eighteen (18), all in Town thirty-nine (39) north, Range three (3) west, Cheboygan County, Michigan.

The petition was signed by the following named persons: E. C. Campbell, James Shepherd, E. M. Sutherland, S. B. Chamberlain A. Laquea, M. H. Dunham, Chas. Goodell, L. I. Willets, James Converse, W. A. Johnston, F. S. Badge, Charles Bart, James Fox, W. M. Carpenter, R. G. Taylor, Benjamin F. LaRue, John H. Kintcel, Ed. Cuberson, George Gane, G. W. Stimpson, M. D. Ferry, F. J. Stimpson, H. L. Loomis, Charles Stimpson, F. L. Pierce, J. S. Apt, Henry Conkling, G. W. Kelker, A. D. McKay, James Bell, James K. Sizeland, George H. Todd, W. T. Waite, A. Torrey, John Paden.

This petition was granted by the supervisors.

In the winter of 1883 the village was reincorporated by act of legislature, approved April 10, 1888, under the general law relating to villages passed in 1875.

The first charter election was held in the spring of 1883, and the following officers elected: President, John Padden; clerk E. M. Sutherland; treasurer, Samuel Chamberlain. Trustees: James Shepherd, James Fox, Wilham Carpenter, John Andrews, James Ball,—Mercier.

1884: President, John Padden; clerk, E. M. Sutherland; treasurer, Samuel Chamberlain. Trustees: James Ball, James Shepherd,—Mercier, James Fox, D. B. Notson, J. Richards.

Considerable activity was exhibited during 1882 and 1883. A number of buildings were erected, and streets were graded. August, 1882, a signal station was established, with F. R. Day as observer. In March, 1888, he was succeeded by Dudley B. Notson, who is still in that position. This station ranks as first-class and a central office of sub-station.

The growth of the place is hindered by legal complications affecting the title to a portion of the village lots. When this hindrance is removed it is thought the village will continue to prosper. The village plat lies in both Cheboygan and Emmet Counties, but the village is built in Cheboygan County.

This place is the central point of early history, and or years was the center of trade for this great northwest region. Nature has made it a geographical and commercial center, and what it may yet become is for the future to answer. The once famous metropolis of the Ottawas and Ojibwas, where the feet of thousands of warriors shook Pe-quod-e-nong (Mackinaw) while dancing their war dances, and going forth painted and plumed to war, may yet see the time when it will be to the whites what it then was to them.

The Inland Route—History of the Enterprise—Description of the Lakes and Rivers—Mullet Lake Hotels—Topinabee and the Hay Fever Resort—Indian River and Wolverine.

The Inland Route

The Cheboygan and Emmet County lake and river navigation improvement is one of the most important enterprises ever successfully carried out in northern Michigan.

In April, 1874, Mr. Frank M. Sammons conceived the idea of carrying the mail through Cheboygan River, Indian River and Burt Lake, to a point in Crooked River, near the state road. In September of that year he went up to the mouth of Indian River, with a span of horses and four men (two whites and two Indians) and ploughed and scraped the bar going into Burt Lake, working in water at places from sixteen inches to three feet deep, and made a channel through which the tug Maud Sammons passed into Burt Lake, carrying supplies for lumber camps. Finding the enterprise of conveying the mail through this route too much to accomplish single-handed, he suggested to Wilham McArthur the advisability of attempting inland navigation on a broader scale. As a result of this suggestion, Messrs. McArthur, Smith & Co. and Thompson Smith decided in 1874 to make an attempt to secure it. They expended labor at the entrance of Burt Lake in forming the piers to the amount of about $3,500. The undertaking being found rather too large for private means, no work was done in 1875. This project culminated finally in August, 1875, in the idea of securing the aid of the state, by means of appropriation of swamp lands. Through the persistent energy of the Northern Tribune several public meetings of the citizens were held, at which measures weie adopted resulting in a preliminary survey being made and a delegation going to Lansing, who laid the matter before the Board of Control of state swamp lands. A survey was ordered by the State Board in October, 1875. In December the Board made an appropriation of $20,000 in swamp lands to do the work. Contracts for doing the work were let in February, 1876, to F. M. Sammons, David Smith and O. B. Green. The route opened for navigation is between Lake Huron, at Cheboygan, through Cheboygan River, Mullet Lake, Indian River, Burt Lake, Crooked River and Crooked Lake, making a distance of about forty-five miles. The depth of water to be obtained is five and a half feet into Burt Lake and five feet into Crooked Lake. Active operations were commenced on the work June 25, 1876. William Chandler, Esq., was appointed local commissioner, and the work rapidly progressed to completion.

The trip from Conway Springs at the head of Crooked Lake to Cheboygan is an exceedingly romantic and interesting one. Crooked Lake is about five miles in length. It is famous for its bass fishing and the numerous delightful localities for camping places along its shores. A sportsman writes as follows with reference to this lake and its surroundings:

"I cannot begin to do this lovely lakelet justice; suffice it to say that we found it beautifully located in the forest primeval, with only a patch of new clearing upon the banks, and one small house at its foot—a very gem in a silver setting.

"Fastening our boat to the limb of a fallen tree, we proceeded to catch a supply of minnows. After which, having rigged lines ready for business before leaving shore, we thought it time to see if any bass were around. I put on a minnow, made a cast, and the bait had scarce got out of sight ere it was taken with a rush. Four casts succeeded, and, in rapid succession, four fine bass came out to interview me. After securing eleven from that tree top, we unhitched and paddled to another part of the lake, taking them, fish where we might. Right there we camped a fortnight, making our camp as comfortable as could be and enjoying one constant dream of delight. Fifty rods from camp we could catch all the minnows we wanted, enticing them by means of some bait placed in a landing net, and, turning to the other side of the boat and casting into deeper water, capture bass in the greatest profusion. They were so thick that we caught all we needed in an hour a day, and even then returned to the water all fish weighing less than two and a half pounds. We had grand sport, for the black bass is really a game fish. We also enticed from their native element several pickerel, which averaged eight pounds each.

"Around this lake, we observed a number of American eagles circling, and, one day from my perch in the top of a tree, I shot one of the glorious birds of freedom. I hurried to the boat with my prize, but had hardly started when another came whirling in the the air above, and seizing my gun I let fly the No. 8's, and, by all that's holy, fetched him to the ground. Whew! two American eagles in five minutes!!! How big we felt! I've chased the antelope over the plains and shot them with my Winchester rifle; stalked deer and elk in the mountain parks of Colorado, and hunted buffalo on the vast prairies of Kansas, but I do not think I ever felt so exhilarated as then. The next morning my companions declared I was muttering in my sleep 'American eagles!—one flying! —No. 8's!'etc.

"At the end of the fortnight we struck tents and departed silently but happy. The time had passed like a dream of blissful contentment—aye, a summer night's dream. Think of this, ye who fish for suckers and catfish in the swamp streams of Indiana, and in the roily waters of the Kankakee—the experience of one who has cast his line in the sunny south, in the streams of the far west, and in our own beautiful Michigan, reads like a very fairy tale.

"No flies to bother you as up in Canada—no 'skeeters nor any no-see'ems—nothing to mar the pleasures—no hot, stifling nights—clammy dews—no dark miasma creeping into the system—but rest—sweet sleep at night and a dreamy existence by day.

"What wonder, then, that the fisherman who has visited northern Michigan loves to dream of the halcyon time, and again looks forward to the lovely June days when the trout riseth to the fly on the waters, and the worm squirmeth in anticipation of the hungry fish that lieth waiting under some log for just such a juicy fellow; when the grayling striketh hard and sharp for your bait, and wait-eth for the disciple of Izaak in the Sturgeon and Pigeon Rivers; while in every running river, in every crystal lake, the gamy black bass jumpeth for whatever bait may be offered on the invitingly sharp hook, let it be frog, mouse, minnow, Dobson's hell-gramite, or any other thing."

"The staunch little steamer upon which you have embarked soon carries you safely across Crooked Lake and brings you to the head of Crooked River, which is the outlet of Crooked Lake. This river is seven miles in length and flows iu a northeasterly direction. The scenery is picturesque. True to its name the river is very crooked. So much so that it is navigated with difficulty in some places.

"Crooked River empties into Burt Lake, one of the prettiest lakes ever looked upon by the tourist. It is nine miles long by five miles wide, the length extending north and south. Crooked, Maple and Sturgeon Rivers, all large streams, pour their waters lavishly into this lake. Maple River is the outlet of Douglass Lake, which is two miles north of Burt Lake. All of these lakes and rivers are full of fish.

"Having crossed Burt Lake you enter Indian River, which is five miles in length. The country along this river is not the best in the world, but the scenery is beautiful.

"Indian River empties into Mullett Lake, which is the largest lake of the series, being twelve miles long and from five to eight miles wide. Pigeon and Indian Rivers enter into this lake. Several good hotels are located at different points around it. This lake, too, is full of fish, and its shores abound in game.

"The outlet of Mullett Lake is Cheboygan River, six miles in length. Three miles down, Black River, which is as large, if not larger than the Cheboygan, empties into the Cheboygan. Black River is the outlet of Black Lake, which is about the size of Mullett Lake. From the junction of Black River with the Cheboygan the stream is much wider and deeper than before, and a continuation of mills of various kinds line its banks until you reach Cheboygan.

Upon Mullett Lake are a number of resort hotels, the most extensive of which is the Mullett Lake House, built by C. R. and Wilham Smith in 1879-'80. It is in the town of Burt, and is situated on the shore of the lake. The cost of the property was $42,000.

The inland route was opened by a boat called the Valley Queen, which ran two seasons. In 1880 the Inland Navigation Co. was organized by Mr. Charles R. Smith, of Cheboygan, and three boats were run until 1883. The two boats now upon the line are the "Mary" and the "Northern Belle."


Topinabee is the name of a station on the Mackinaw division of the Michigan Central Railroad, but is becoming better known as a popular summer resort on Mullett Lake. The location has all the desirable features of a favorite resort. It is on the west shore of Mullett Lake, on a narrow peninsula between that and Burt Lake, only two miles wide, on the Mackinaw division of the Michigan Central R. R., over which (during the resort season) there are run daily two passenger trains each way, from Detroit and Chicago, with sleepers and no change of cars, (besides local trains) all stopping at this station, the depot of which is within twenty rods of our lands. Topinabee is 479 miles from Chicago; 268 miles from Detroit; thirty miles south from Mackinaw Island; thirteen miles south from Cheboygan, Mich.; and about twenty-five miles north and east of Petoskey. There are daily mail and telegraph facilities. Daily connections with Cheboygan by boat and cars, with the through lines of steamers from Buffalo, Cleveland and Detroit, to Milwaukee and Chicago. During the summer season there is a daily line of steamers each way, from Mackinaw Island to Oden, making connection with the Grand Rapids & Indiana R. R. to Petoskey. This route is called the Inland Water Route, and is from Mackinaw Island across the straits to Cheboygan, up through Cheboygan River and Mullett Lake to Topinabee, thence through Indian River, Burt Lake, Crooked River and Crooked Lake to Oden, a station on the G. R. & I. R. R., about eight miles north and east of Petoskey, and is a very popular route for tourists. It is one of the best points in northern Michigan for fishing with hook and line, and bass, pickerel, pike and white fish are abundant in the lakes, and fine trout and grayling streams not far distant. Plenty ot game in its season, deer, ducks, geese and partridge.

The grounds are a beautiful natural park, rising in terraces to a height of over one hundred feet, and are covered with second growth timber, from ten to thirty feet high, consisting of pine, spruce, balsam, poplar, oak of different kinds, and maple, and carpeted with wintergreens, trailing arbutus, sweet ferns and low bush huckleberries.

The history of this point is substantially as follows: In the summer of 1880 Mr. H. H. Pike, a veteran hotel proprietor at Niles, Mich., purchased eighty-five acres of land at this point, and subsequently made another purchase of twenty acres. This land is in Sections 29 and 30, in the town of Burt, and lies along the shore of Mullett Lake. Mr. Pike is a native of Burlington, Vt., and as early as 1850 located at Niles. With the exception of about five years he has been engaged in the hotel business for the past forty years. In 1866 he built the Pike House at Niles, and kept it until the summer of 1883. For a number of years he had been in pursuit of a desirable location for a summer resort, and had visited various points with a view of purchasing a site, but did not succeed in doing so. In the summer of 1879 he made a trip over the Inland route and was favorably impressed with the surroundings of Mullett Lake. The railroad had not at that time penetrated this section, and he watched the progress of the line that was to extend from Bay City to Mackinaw City. In the summer of 1880, being satisfied as to the location of the road, he made the purchase as already stated. In October, 1881, he began the erection of a hotel, and finished it in July, 1882. It was named the Pike House, and immediately opened, though Mr. Pike did not move here with his family until June, 1883. The house is situated between the railroad and the lake, and the grounds are being laid out with walks and rendered attractive. The building is three stories in height and is 22x66 and 22x46 feet in size.

The railroad was built in 1881, and the depot built in January, 1882. Mr. Phelps, chief engineer of the road, named it Portage, from the fact of this being the narrowest point between Mullett and Burt Lakes. There being so many places of that name it was thought best to adopt one less frequently used, and Mr. Pike suggested a number of names, among which was Topinabee, the name of a chief of the Pottawatomie Indians, and which was finally adopted.

In January, 1882, a postoffice was established at this point, and D. P. Stofer wras postmaster. The office was first kept in the log building built by the railroad company, and afterward in the Pike House. Jeremiah McCarthy, the present postmaster, came here in January, 1883, from Otsego County, and bought out Samuel Mills, who had a store building and a stock of goods. In February following, he was appointed postmaster, and since that time has kept the office in his store. Mr. McCarthy is a native of Ireland, and emigrated to America in 1862. He had lived in Otsego County twelve years.

The first station agent and operator was George W. Kilmer. In June, 1883, he was succeeded by J. E. Kilborn, a native of Chautauqua County, N. Y. He had been telegraph operator at Mason and Mackinaw City. Mr. Kilborn is popular with the people of the locality, and is attentive to his duties.

Mr. Pike has platted thirty-six acres, and is making an active effort to bring this point into prominence.

The Northern Hay Fever Resort Association

have selected a location at this point, and it is now expected that improvement will be begun in the summer of 1884. This association was organized and incorporated Sept. 24, 1883, under chapter 125, law of 1871, with a capital stock of $2,500, divided into one hundred shares of $25 each. The following officers have been chosen:

President, George L. Pratt, Ridgeway, N. Y.; secretary, E. L. Downey, Middleport, N. Y.; treasurer, George Brown, Gaines, N. Y. In March, 1884, a circular was issued by the association, from which we quote as follows: "There are thousands of people in the United States, who are the suffering victims of hay fever, who are annually obliged to flee to some place of refuge, and spend an eighth or one-sixth of their time there, or suffer hay fever with all its horrors. This annual pilgrimage, which must be continued through life, so far as we know, assumes to be a matter of serious importance with many of us, whether we can earn enough during the five-sixths of the time we are at home, to live, and pay our expenses at a place of refuge. It is also a question of serious importance to us, that where we spend one-sixth of our time that we are able to surround ourselves with the comforts and conveniences of a home.

"With all these questions pressing for years on us 'victims,' it is strange that some organized attempt has not been made heretofore, to avail ourselves of the advantages to be secured by associated effort. To meet this want for ourselves a few of us have made a new departure, and organized an association with $2,500 capital stock, in one hundred shares of twenty-five dollars each. Over one-quarter of the stock is already subscribed at this date, before issuing our prospectus or advertising our plans to the public at all. The association has located at Topinabee, and have a contract for a fee simple title of forty acres of land on easy terms, for it is really a gift. The conditions are, that when the association erect ten cottages, of the value of $150 each or more, on the first twenty acres, in the years of 1884 and 1885, they obtain a deed of the land, and the last twenty acres when the same number and value of cottages are erected thereon in the years 1886 and 1887. The location is one of the best, if not the very best in northern Michigan, taking all considerations into account.

"Any person subscribing tour shares of the stock of the association, and paying fifty per cent on the same or fifty dollars, is entitled to a choice of any lot not before set off on the books of the association, in the order of his subscription, free of rent or tax, and half fare rates to and from Topinabee over all the lines of the M. C. R. R. for himself and family. The maximum fare from Buffalo to Topinabee and return is $14.90; Chicago, $13.25; Toledo, $9.30, and all intermediate points according to distance.

"The association will give fifteen year leases of lots to build cottages on, to those who do not wish to subscribe for stock, at an annual rental of from three to eight dollars, according to the location, and the persons holding leases, after erecting a cottage thereon, are entitled to same privileges of half fare rates, over the lines of the M. C. R. R. as those holding stock. The grounds will be surveyed early in the season of 1884, and ready for occupancy.

"When the whole one hundred shares of stock are taken, no more will be issued, and the title of the land vests in the owners of the stock, and with the improvements made, must inevitably advance double and treble in value.

"Although the association was organized primarily in the interests of hay fever victims, we are willing and desirous of sharing its benefits with summer resorters, and we cordially invite them to join our association and enjoy its advantages. We note it as a fact, that the summer resort season closes about the time the hay fever season begins, and we wish to suggest to summer resorters and hay fever sufferers, living in the same neighborhood, to join in buying stock or leasing a lot, and build and furnish a cottage in partnership, and the summer resorter occupy it until a time agreed on, say about the middle of August, and the hay fever sufferer after that date, and that would divide the expense, and in that way use the cottages four or five months each year instead of one or two months. This will reduce the cost of a couple of months' rest and recreation, in the cool and bracing air of northern Michigan, to a minimum, and is as cheap as living at home, with the cost of railroad fares and cost or rent of cottages only added.

"The directors have decided to expend all that is necessary of the money received on subscription of stock, for improvements of the grounds, bringing water to the grounds in pipes from a spring near by, elevating it to a reservoir on the high ground by wind power, and deliver it in pipes and hydrants at convenient points for use on the grounds, and also use it for a fountain in the park. It is also contemplated to build a reading and lecture room. The M. C. R. R. will build a good and substantial dock, and all steamers will stop at Topinabee. They will also improve and grade their lands (100 feet wide) through the park, equally as well as we do ours.

"Although the association has provided in their by-laws for building a hotel if necessary, yet it is not their intention to do so. They expect to make provision for board for transient visitors, at about $1 per day or $5 per week. The president of the association is authorized to offer a fee simple title of a lot of land near our grounds to a respectable, responsible person who will engage to erect a hotel thereon, to accommodate our transient visitors at moderate prices for board. Correspondence about the matter is solicited, for if satisfactory arrangements can be made to accommodate transient visitors, the association will not build a hotel.

"There are responsible parties at Cheboygan and other points near, who will erect cottages on the grounds, built after plans and specifications, and do it by contract. Tents can also be purchased or rented for use next season, until cottages can be erected. The management will see that such accommodations are ready for use, by any who wish to spend the next season at Topinabee, who notify them of the fact, and will aid in any way they can in putting persons who wish cottages built by contract in communication with contractors."

The land selected is owned by Thompson Smith, of Duncan City.

Parties are also negotiating with Mr. Pike for ground upon which to build a sanitarium.

Back of Topinabee in the town of Burt is some of the finest farming land in the state. The town was settled mainly in 1877-'78, and a large number of good farms have been made.

Village of Indian River

This village is located on Section 24, in the town of Tuscarora, and is a station on the Mackinaw division of the Michigan Central Railroad. The village lies upon both sides of Indian River, near the shore of Burt Lake, and is about midway between Petoskey and Cheboygan, on the Inland Navigation Route. The history of the village is substantially as follows: In the spring of 1876, David Smith, Jackson Corey, S. P. Hayes, M. A. McHenry and John B. Clark, came to this point and located. Mr. McHenry was a native of Steuben County, N. Y. He had served in the war from 1862 until the close of the war in 1865, with Company F, Fiftieth New York Engineers. In 1865 he came to Michigan and located first at Saginaw. He afterward removed to St. Louis, and was principally engaged in looking land. As early as 1872 he located a homestead in the present town of Mentor, and was familiar with the lands in the county. It was his opinion that the railroad would cross the river at this point, and thereby make a good village site. He had the descriptions of the land, and induced John B. Clark to enter land for a homestead at this particular point.

In 1878, F. E. Martin, also of St. Louis, and Mr. McHenry, purchased of Mr. Clark 152 acres, upon a portion of which the village has been built. Mr. Martin is a native of Branch County, Mich., and had been engaged in the stave business at St. Louis. Mr. McHenry had built a house on the south side of the river where the water tank now stands, and kept hotel. Early in the summer of 1879 Mr. Martin put up a store building, and opened a general store. Mr. O. S. Heyden came here from St. Louis, to manage Mr. Martin's business. He was also a native of Branch County. About this time a postoffice was established, with Mr. Heyden postmaster. Mr. Heyden was a civil engineer, and in 1879 surveyed a village plat for Mr. Martin, which was recorded in 1880. In the spring of 1881, Mr. Martin removed to this place from St. Louis, and assumed the management of his business interests. Mr. Heyden put up a store building, and E. S. "Warren put in a stock of goods. About this time a visitor to the village mentioned it as follows: "Its growth has been of unexpected rapidity, and, from present indications, is of a permanent nature. The people have all the advantages of those in larger places, with the exception of a church of some kind or other, and perhaps the time is not far distant when some denomination will make a start, and a neat little chapel will be added to the improvements of the place. There are two large stores, the largest owned and managed by F. E. Martin, who is, in fact, the pioneer and founder of the town; he has in his store an immense stock of goods, comprising all things needed by the people in that vicinity. His trade has increased to such an extent that he has been compelled to have more room for his goods, and he is now putting up a larger and more convenient two-story frame building. Mr. E. S. Warren is the proprietor of the other store, and has his shelves well filled with goods. Although he has been there but a few weeks his trade has been constantly on the increase, and he feels certain that his coming will not prove a 'wild goose chase.' Mr. D. Parsons has a saw-mill a little farther up the river, and furnishes employment to a large force of men the year round, and thereby is a great help toward the upbuilding of the place. Mr. McHenry is the genial 'mine host' of all the weary and hungry that come along, and the good wholesome meal he sets before them would put to blush some of the more aristocratic hotels in the state. Mr. John Doyle is in charge of the saloon owned by Jerome Fosdick, and certainly keeps an orderly place, and has in stock the best brands of wines, liquors and cigars that he can get. R. G. Archer has recently started a barber shop at the village, and can give those wishing it a clean shave or a good hair-cut. For the benefit of pleasure seekers, Thomas Dag well has built, and keeps ready to let, several row and sail boats, so that, whether your trip be that of business or pleasure, you will find all the accommodations at Indian River village you can elsewhere in the northern part of the state, even to mosquitoes."

The railroad was built in 1881, and in 1882 Mr. McHenry built the McHenry House, a large and attractive hotel that wrould be a credit to a much larger village. The present proprietor is Benjamin S. Heliker, who rents the property of Mr. McHenry.

The saw and shingle-mill of Darius Parsons was moved here in 1878. Daniel Keeney has a saw and shingle-mill built in 1883. There is also a mill on Burt Lake, owned by John Parker.

In 1880 H. G. Graves moved here from St. Louis, and has been in the employ of Mr. Martin. He is deputy postmaster, Mr. Martin having succeeded Mr. Heyden as postmaster.

School District No. 2 was organized in August, 1881, and was first designated No. 11. The school-house was built that year.

There is a Methodist Episcopal church building now in the course of erection.

Stephen Kissinger, merchant, is a native of Summit County, Ohio. In 1880 he moved to the town of Tuscarora, from Reed City, Mich., and settled upon a homestead. In February he moved to the village, and succeeded O. S. Heyden, in the mercantile business. He is supervisor of the town and does a flourishing business in his store.

Oak Hill Cemetery contains five acres and was laid out in 1882.

In 1888 Mr. McHenry platted an addition to the village, and in the spring of 1884, Messrs. Martin and McHenry are each platting other additions to the village, which indicates that the place is enjoying a sure and healthy growth.

The village is prettily situated, and the location is favorable for a business center. Its founders are men of energy and good business tact, and are doing all in their power to advance thr material interests of the village.

Tuscarora Township, in which the village is located, contains excellent farming land, and is settled with an enterprising class of farmers. The Ohio settlement, consisting of about forty families from Ohio, located here in 1877 and during the next few years, and the land is being rapidly improved.


This is a post village and station on the Mackinaw division of the Michigan Central Railroad. The village is located in the town of Tuscarora. It was platted in 1881, and was mentioned at the time as follows: "The location is a most excellent one, being on the railroad, on Sturgeon River at the junction of the west branch with the main river and in the midst of some of the best farming land in the county. The new village is called Torry, and is in the township of Tuscarora, and situated in Section 6, Town 33 north, of Range 2 west, on land owned by Daniel McKillop. It was platted by John M. Sanborne, a surveyor of Otsego County, and as platted consists of seven blocks. The lots 60x132 feet. The streets run at right angles and are all of good width. The new village can already boast of a postoffice, that of Wolverine being at that point. Mr. McKillop offers to sell lots at very low figures.

Torry is midway between Indian River and Vanderbilt stations on the railroad, being ten miles south of the former and about the same distance north of Vanderbilt. Crops of all kinds in the vicinity aye most promising this season and it is claimed the wheat cannot be beat. Tuscarora is fast becoming the most productive township in our county and this section of that town is among the best and most rapidly developing portion. A large number of new settlers have located this season and new houses are going up and new farms are being cleared.

"Berry, Gagnier & Co., of Berryville, Otsego County, who have had a portable saw-mill located on the west branch of the Sturgeon River for some weeks sawing ties for the railroad, shut down a week or so ago, but expect to start up again in a short time and saw for about a month longer, when they contemplate moving their mill and locating it at Torry and engage in supplying the demands of the settlers in that section for lumber and building timber of all kinds."

The name of the village has since been changed to Wolverine. It is a small settlement and does quite an amount of local business.

This Page Was Last Updated Saturday, 03-Mar-2012 12:37:34 MST

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